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SLS Bio11TM microbio

SLS bio 11 TM microbiology

QuestionAnswer
antibody a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.
antigen a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
host cell an animal or plant on or in which a parasite or commensal organism lives.
lymphocyte a form of small leukocyte (white blood cell) with a single round nucleus, occurring especially in the lymphatic system.
lysogenic cycle Lysogeny, or the lysogenic cycle, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction (the lytic cycle is the other). Lysogeny is characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid into the host bacterium's genome or formations of a circular replicon i
lytic cycle The lytic cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction, the other being the lysogenic cycle. The lytic cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell and its membrane.
membranous envelope The double-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. The nuclear envelope has pores that allow the passage of materials into and out of the nucleus. Also called nuclear membrane. nuclear membrane
mucous membrane an epithelial tissue that secretes mucus and that lines many body cavities and tubular organs including the gut and respiratory passages.
nucleic acid core a core is The part of a nuclear reactor where binary fission occurs.
phagocytic white blood cell Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting (phagocytosing) harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.
protein capsid A capsid is the protein shell of a virus. It consists of several oligomeric structural subunits made of protein called protomers.
RNA ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, although in some viruses RNA rather than DNA carries the genetic informatio
tertiary line of defence Tetiary line of defense are your antibodies. The first line of defense is skin, the second line of defense is white blood cells. If the pathogen has passed 1st and 2nd line of defense, your third line of defense comes in to play. Tertiary line of defense
viral specificity viral specificity means that a virus is selective in the organisms it infects, the type of cells and the disease it produces.
white blood cell less technical term for leukocyte, a colorless cell that circulates in the blood and body fluids and is involved in counteracting foreign substances and disease; a white (blood) cell. There are several types, all amoeboid cells with a nucleus, including l
aerobic respiration Aerobic respiration is the process most living things undergo to use food energy. Here we will investigate the definition, the steps of the process, what goes in and what comes out of the process, and the chemical formula.
antibiotic a medicine (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms.
antiseptic of, relating to, or denoting substances that prevent the growth of disease-causing microorganisms.
bacteria a member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms that have cell walls but lack organelles and an organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease.
binary fission Binary fission ("division in half") is a kind of asexual reproduction. It is the most common form of reproduction in prokaryotes and occurs in some single-celled eukaryotes. After replicating its genetic material, the cell divides into two nearly equal si
classification the action or process of classifying something according to shared qualities or characteristics.
conjugation the formation or existence of a link or connection between things, in particular.
disinfectant a chemical liquid that destroys bacteria.
ecological role Hutchinson's "niche" (a description of the ecological space occupied by a species) is subtly different from the "niche" as defined by Grinnell (an ecological role, that may or may not be actually filled by a species—see vacant niches).
fermentation the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat.
motility n biology, motility is the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process. Most animals are motile but the term applies to unicellular and simple multicellular organisms, as well as to some mechanisms of fluid flow in multicel
mutation the changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent generations, caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA, or the deletion, insertion, or rearrangement of larger sections of genes or chrom
photosynthesis the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct.
prokaryote a microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles. Prokaryotes include the bacteria and cyanobacteria.
resistant enoting starch that is not easily broken down by enzymes within the body and is therefore minimally absorbed during digestion.