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Human Bio Final

Human Biology

QuestionAnswer
Hormones chemical signals made in the body that travel throught the blood stream to target cells
Target Cells Any cell that has receptors for the hormone. Bone cells, immune cells, heart cells, etc.
How do hormones work? Increase activity. Decrease activity. All for the purpose of maintaining homeostasis.
Steroid Hormones derived from cholesterol. Influences genes. Diffuse through the cell membrane. Long-term effects. Examples: Testosterone, Estrogen, Cortisol
Peptide Hormones derived from proteins. Influences chemicals. Requires receptors. Short-term effects. Examples: ADH, ACTH, GH, GHRH, INS, OXT
Hypothalamus Control Center of the Endocrine System. Where it all begins. “Releasing Hormones”. Releasing hormones influence the anterior pituitary. Have neurons that extend to the posterior pituitary. Modulated through negative feedback
Pituitary Receives input from the hypothalamus. Releases “stimulating” hormones to hormone-producing centers of the body. Releases hormones directly into the cardiovascular system.
Anterior Pituitary hormone producing cells. “FLAT PiG” Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH). Lutenizing Hormone (LH). Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH). Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH). Prolactin (Pro) Growth Hormone (GH)
Posterior Pituitary terminals from hypothalamic neurons. Stores and releases hormones. Oxytocin. ADH
Adrenal Glands Receive the ACTH from the anterior pituitary. Produces Cortisol.
Cortex (Adrenal Glands) Necessary for life. Maintains routine homeostasis.
Medulla (Adrenal Glands) Not necessary for life. Maintains crisis homeostasis. Epinephrine.
Stress Disrupt metabolism due to physical or psychological stimuli. Acute stress (like an exam): managed by adrenal medulla. Chronic: Elevation of ACTH Cortisol levels high: more blood glucose. Immune system compromised.
Thyroid Gland Produces Thyroid Hormone. Influences metabolism. Requires Iodine
HYPOthyroidism loss of thyroid hormone, decrease metabolism rate
HYPERthyroidism too much thyroid hormone, increase metabolism rate.
Parathyroid Gland Located on thyroid. Calcium homeostasis.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Increases blood Ca
Calcitonin Decreases blood Ca
Exocrine (Pancreas) Digestion: remember enzymes (zymogens), bicarbonate ions.
Endocrine Blood sugar regulation Beta cells: Insulin: lowers blood glucose. Alpha cells: Glucagon: raises blood glucose.
Type 1 Diabetes Autoimmune disease. Immune system attacks insulin producing cells. No insulin is produced. Requires blood monitoring and insulin injections. Causes: Genetic. Triggered by infection.
Type 2 Diabetes Associated with lifestyle. Linked to obesity and physical inactivity. Insulin is produced, but cells are no longer sensitive = increase blood sugar. Decrease insulin sensitivity
Type 2 Diabetes Causes Genetic, Lifestyle Requires blood monitoring and lifestyle changes.
Cushing’s Syndrome High levels of cortisol. Pituitary tumor: too much ACTH, too much cortisol. Rapid weight gain. Moodiness, irritability, depression. Muscle, bone weakness. Memory and attention dysfunction. Hypertension. Immune suppression.
Acromegaly Hypersecretion of growth hormone. Pituitary tumor. Heart complications. Bone injuries.
Hyperthyroidism (Grave’s Disease) Enlarged thyroid (could be prone to sleep apnea). Weight loss despite increased appetite. Diarrhea Heart complications Irritability. Exophthalmos (eyes bulging) Autoimmune Target TSH cells.
Hypothyroidism Loss of thyroid gland: Lack of iodine in the diet OR Autoimmune. Mental retardation Sluggishness. Cold intolerance. Obesity Constipation.
Vasectomy Male sterilization/ permanent birth control. Vas deferens are severed and then tied/sealed to prevent sperm from entering the seminal stream. Prevent fertilization. Out patient procedure. “Snip Snap”
Birth Control Condoms: prevent sperm from entering female reproductive tract. Birth control pills: synthetic estrogens and progesterones. Blocks maturation and oocyte ovulation.
STDs Infect: Genitals Urinary Tract Eyes Throat Can result in infertility/sterility.
STD Types Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis: Treated with antibiotics. Herpes: Viral infection. Cycles of outbreaks and remission. Life long. No cure, only suppression. Caesarian section for deliveries.
Endometrium (the lining inside the uterus) grows outside the uterus.
Endometriosis Involves ovaries, bowels, or tissue lining the pelvis. Symptoms: Painful periods (dysmenorrhea). Pain with intercourse. Pain with bowel movements or urination. Excessive bleeding. Infertility.
Cancers Uterine or cervical cancer: Detected through pap smear. Identify HPV
Created by: kaylaweiss