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Microbiology

Viruses & Monera

TermDefinition
(Virus): Antibody Y-shape protein produced by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses
(Virus): Antigen Antigenic drift is a mechanism for variation in viruses that involves the accumulation of mutations within the genes that code for antibody-binding sites.
(Virus): DNA a virus in which the genetic information is stored in the form of DNA (as opposed to RNA).
(Virus): Host Cell A host cell is a living cell in which a virus reproduces. A primary host or definitive host is a host in which the parasite reaches maturity and, if possible, reproduces sexually.
(Virus): Lymphocyte are a group of human retroviruses that are known to cause a type of cancer called adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma
(Virus): Lysogenic Cycle is one of two cycles of viral reproduction (the lytic cycle is the other). Lysogeny is characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid into the host bacterium's genome or formations of a circular replicon in the bacterium's cytoplasm.
(Virus): Lytic Cycle The lytic cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction, the other being the lysogenic cycle. The lytic cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell and its membrane.
(Virus): Membranous envelope The viral envelope then fuses with the host's membrane, allowing the viral genome to enter and infect the host. The cell from which the virus itself buds will often die or be weakened and shed more viral particles for an extended period.
(Virus): Mucous Membrane an epithelial tissue that secretes mucus and that lines many body cavities and tubular organs including the gut and respiratory passages.
(Virus): Nucleic Acid Core a core is The part of a nuclear reactor where binary fission occurs.
(Virus): Phagocytic White Blood Cell Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting (phagocytosing) harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.
(Virus): Primary Line of Defense Means of defence can be categorised into first and second lines of defence, with the first line usually having direct contact with the external environment.
(Virus): Protein Capsid A capsid is the protein shell of a virus. It consists of several oligomeric structural subunits made of protein called protomers
(Virus): RNA a virus in which the genetic information is stored in the form of RNA (as opposed to DNA).
(Virus): Secondary Line of Defense The second line of defence is a group of cells, tissues and organs that work together to protect the body. This is the immune system.
(Virus): Tertiary Line of Defense Tetiary line of defense are your antibodies. If the pathogen has passed 1st and 2nd line of defense, your third line of defense comes in to play. Tertiary line of defense includes acquired and innate immunity.
(Virus): Viral Specificity viral specificity means that a virus is selective in the organisms it infects, the type of cells and the disease it produces.
(Virus): White Blood Cell a colorless cell that circulates in the blood and body fluids and is involved in counteracting foreign substances and disease
(Monera): Aerobic Respiration Aerobic respiration is the process most living things undergo to use food energy. Here we will investigate the definition, the steps of the process, what goes in and what comes out of the process, and the chemical formula.
(Monera): Antibiotic a medicine (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms.
(Monera): Antiseptic of, relating to, or denoting substances that prevent the growth of disease-causing microorganisms.
(Monera): Bacteria a member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms that have cell walls but lack organelles and an organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease.
(Monera): Binary Fission Binary fission is a kind of asexual reproduction. It is the most common form of reproduction in prokaryotes and occurs in some single-celled eukaryotes. After replicating its genetic material, the cell divides into two nearly equal sized daughter cells.
(Monera): Classification Monera is a kingdom that contains unicellular organisms with a prokaryotic cell organization, such as bacteria
(Monera): Conjugation Conjugation is the process by which one bacterium transfers genetic material to another through direct contact. During conjugation, one bacterium serves as the donor of the genetic material, and the other serves as the recipient.
(Monera): Disinfectant a chemical liquid that destroys bacteria.
(Monera): Ecological Role
(Monera): Fermentation the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat.
(Monera): Motility Motility is the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process. Most animals are motile but the term applies to unicellular and simple multicellular organisms. (Organisms that can move around).
(Monera): Mutate/Mutation Virus mutation is mutation of viruses and may refer to: The feature of viruses to cause mutation in the human genome. The feature of viruses to perform viral genetic change in their own genome.
(Monera): Photosynthesis the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct.
(Monera): Prokaryote a microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles. Prokaryotes include the bacteria and cyanobacteria.
(Monera): Resistant/Resistance denoting starch that is not easily broken down by enzymes within the body and is therefore minimally absorbed during digestion.
Created by: nharris123