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Cells, Structure and Function, Cell Theory

Robert Hooke one of the first people to observe cells; coined the term “cell” based upon the rooms or cells in the monastery in which he lived (1663)
Anton von Leeuwenhoek “Father of Microscopy;” the first to see many microorganisms, including bacteria (which he called animacules), protists, and yeast (1673)
Matthias Schleiden worked with plant tissues and determined that all plants are made of cells (1838)
Theodor Schwann worked with animal tissues and determined that all animals are made of cells (1839)
Rudolf Virchow worked with animal tissues and determined that all animals are made of cells 1858) which became part of the cell theory
Cell Theory 1) all living things are made (composed) of cells, 2) cells are the basic unit of structure and function in all living things, 3) cells come from previously existing, living cells
cell membrane acts as the “gatekeeper” of the cell; regulates what goes into/out of the cell
cell wall acts as the “gatekeeper” of the cell; regulates what goes into/out of the cell
chloroplast location of photosynthesis; found in plant cells
cytoplasm jelly-like interior of cells; contains most of the organelles
Golgi body (apparatus) Sorts and packages proteins for cells into membrane-bound structure called vesicles
lysosome breaks down large molecules and old organelles
mitochondrion location of cellular respiration; provides most of the energy for cells
nuclear membrane surrounds the nucleus; regulates what goes into/comes out of the nucleus
nucleus control center of the cell; directs the cells in what they should do. Houses DNA
ribosome produces proteins for the cell and proteins to be transported outside the cell
rough endoplasmic reticulum passageway for materials like proteins to be transported; outside of this ER is covered in ribosomes
smooth endoplasmic reticulum passageway for materials like proteins to be transported; lacks ribosomes on the outside
vacuole storage area for cells of waste, water and food. plant cells have one large vacuole; animal cells have several small
Levels of cellular organization Cell -> Tissue -> Organ -> Organ System -> Organism
permeable a material can pass freely in and out
impermeable a material is neither allowed to pass in nor out
selectively permeable a material may or may not be able to pass freely in and out
Homeostasis Balance between the cell and its environment
Passive transport Moving materials across the cell membrane without the use of energy (high to low concentration)
Active transport Moving materials across the cell membrane using energy (low to high concentration)
Diffusion Random movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Equilibrium Molecules are evenly spaced out in a solution
Facilitated diffusion Diffusion of specific particles through transport proteins found in the cell membrane
Osmosis Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Hypertonic greater concentration of solutes
Hypotonic Lower concentration of solutes
Isotonic Equal concentration of solutes
Endocytosis Taking bulky material into the cell by folding the cell membrane around a particle.
Exocytosis Forcing material out of a cell by fusing the material with the cell membrane to allow it to exit.
Created by: barbzabel7



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