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Bacteria Cards

QuestionAnswer
Lipopolysaccharide G (-) surface antigen endotoxin. Lipid A -> TNF & IL-1 induction
Bacterial ribosome 50s & 30s
Gram + Organism Characteristics Teichoic acid
Gram – Organism Characteristics Endotoxin/LPS, Periplasmic space
Non- Gram Stain Organisms Treponema (too thin, fluorescent antibody stain), Rickettsia (intracellular), Mycobacteria (acid fast +), Mycoplasma (no cell wall), Leigonella (intracellular- Silver stain +), Chlamydia (intracellular)
Exotoxins Select G+ & - bacteria. Secreted polypeptide encoded on a plasmid, uber-toxic. Induces strong antibody response. Heat labile (-staph enterotox). Examples: Tetanus, botulism, diphtheria.
Exotoxin-Secreting Bugs S. aureus:TSST-1; S. pyogenes:Scarlet fever&erythyrogenic toxin; c. Perifringens:gas gangrene&double hemolysis, Tetani:blocks GABA; Botulinum:blocks ACh; Anthrax:adenylate cyclase; Shigella:Shigga cleaves host rRNA, HUS; s Pyogenes:Streptolysin-hemolysis
Endotoxins Most G- & listeria. Endemic surface lipopolysaccharide. Less toxic, less antigenic. Induces TNF & IL-1 -> fever, shock. Heat stable. Examples: Meningococcemia, G- sepsis.
Protein A Binds Fc region of Ig. s aureus.
IgA protease Secreted from encapsulated orgs: s. pneumo, h. flu, neisseria.
GAS M Protein Blocks phagocytosis
Conjugation F plasmid contains conjugation genes. Hfr cells incorporate into DNA and can transmit adjacent DNA.
Transformation DNA uptake from environment
Transduction Generalized: LYTIC phage lyses host DNA & some host DNA can get into viral capsid. Specialized: Host DNA on either side of integrated viral genome is taken & packaged into LYSOGENIC phage viral capsid.
Transposition Transposons that carry genes for virulence & antibiotic resistance. Insert into plasmids, bacterial chromosomes
Toxins encoded in lysogenic phages (ABCDE) shigA-like toxin, Botulinum, Cholera, Diptheria, Erythrogenic toxin of s. pyogenes
Obligate Aerobes Nocardia, p. aeruginosa, TB, Bacillus.
Obligate Anaerobes Actinomycetes, bacteroides, clostridium.
Facultative Intracellular Organisms Salmonella, neisseria, brucella, mycobacterium, listeria, francisella, legionella, yersinia
Obligate Intracellular Organisms Rickettsia, Chlamydia
Encapsulated Bacteria Strep pneumo, h flu, neisseria meningitidis, klebsiella
Spore formers bacillus (antracis, cereus), clostridium (botulinum, diff, perifringens, tetani)
Urease + Orgs H pylori, proteus, klebsiella, ureaplasma
Gram (-) & Penicillin resistant to benzylpenicillin G, +/- susceptible to derivatives (ampicillin). Outer membrane --| Penicillin G & Vanco entry
Enterobacteriaceae Characteristics (e coli, salmonella, shigella, klebsiella, enterobacter, serratia, proteus). All have O-antigen (endotoxin), glucose fermenter, oxidase (-). Capsular K antigen determines virulence. Flagellar H antigen on motile species.
Lactose Fermenting Enterocytes Pink on MacConKEE agar: Klebsiella, E coli, enterobacter, Citrobacter.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus & vulnificus Seafood contamination. V. vulnificus -> wound infx contaminated w/shellfish or water.
Food Poisoning Organisms Vibrio, Bacillus cereus, S. aureus, clostridium perifringens, c botulinum, e coli, salmonella
Bloody Diarrhea Organisms Campy, salmonella, shigella, enterohemorrhagic & enteroinvasive e. coli, yersinia, c diff, entamoeba histolytica.
Watery Diarrhea Organisms Enterotoxigenic e. coli, cholera, c. perifringens, protozoa (giardia, cryptosporidium), viruses (rota, adeno, noro-viruses)
cAMP Inducers cholera, pertussis, e coli heat-labile toxin, anthrax (primary adenylate cyclase, -|PMNs + Edema)
Zoonotic Bacteria Bartonella henselae, borrelia burgdorferi, brucella, francisella, yersinia, pasturella.
Bartonella henselae cat scratch fever, by cat scratch
Borrelia burgdorferi Lyme disdease, ixodes ticks on deer & mice
Gardnerella vaginalis +/- gram staining rod. Non-painful white/gray fishy vaginal discharge. Coinfx w/ Mobiluncus (anaerobe). Dx: Clue cells, epithelial cells covered in bacteria. Treatment: Metronidazole.
Giemsa’s Stain Borrelia, Plasmodium, Trypanosomes, Chlamydia
PAS Stain (periodic acid-Schiff) Whipple’s Disease. Stains glycogen & mucopolysaccharides.
Ziehl-Neelsen Stain Acid-fast bacteria
India ink Cryptococcus neoformans
Silver Stain Fungi, Leigonella
Chocolate agar H flu: Factor V (NAD) & X (hematin)
Thayer-Martin Media N. gonorrhoeae
Bordet-Gengou Agar Pertussis. Potato-based agar.
Tellurite Plate, Loeffler Medium Corynebacterium Diptheriae -> black colony
Lowenstein-Jensen Agar TB
MacConkey’s Agar Lactose fermenting enteric bacteria -> Pink (Kleb, E coli , Entero > Citro, Serratia)
Charcoal Yeast Extract Leigonella, buffered with iron & cysteine
Sbouraud’s Agar Fungi
E Coli Enteritis Subtypes & Toxins ETEC:Heat labile & stable tox -> travelers diarrhea; EHEC: Shigga-> bloody diarrhea & HUS, EIEC: Bloody diarrhea. LT: AB toxin -> ADP ribosylatoin Gs-> cAMP -> Diarrhea.
A-B/ADP Ribosylating Toxin Bugs PERTUSSIS--|Gi--|chemokines & phagocytosis. Pseudamonas & DIPTHERIA --|EF2. E COLI & CHOLERA->Gs->uber diarrhea
Bacteriostatic Antibiotics Erythro- & Clindamycins, SMX, Trimethoprim, Tetracyclines, Chloramphenicol
Bactericidal Antibiotics Vancomycin, Fluoroquinolones, Penicillin, Aminoglycosides(-mycins), Cephalosporins, Metronidazole
Sulfa Allergies Sulfonamides, sulfasalazine, sulfonylureas, thiazides, acetazolamide, furosemide
VRE Treatment Linezolid & streptogramins (-pristins)
Contraindicated Antibiotics in Pregnancy Sulfonamides (kernicterus), Aminoglycosides (ototoxicity), Fluoroquinolones- cartilage, Erythromycin-cholestatic hep, Metronidazole: mutations, Tetracyclines: teeth, inhibit bone growth, Griseofulvin: teratogenic. Chloramphenicol: gray baby.
1st Gen Cephalosporins Cefazolin, Cephalexin
2nd Gen Cephalosporins Cef -oxitin, -uroxime, -clor
3rd Gen Cephalosporins Cef -tazidime, -triaxone, -ixime
4th Gen Cephalosporin Cefepime
Created by: Kyle Tiemeier