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# SOL Science Review

### A look at the fourth and fifth grade science units

If you are given a picture and asked to make an OBSERVATION, you must choose the answer that includes only things that you can actually see with your own eyes
The mass of an object is the amount of matter in an object - - how heavy it is.
Given a 2-liter bottle of Coke, 2 liters is a measure of the volume of Coke - or how much space it takes up.
The capacity of a container is how much it can hold. The capacity our large Coke bottle, even if it is empty, is 2 liters
The capacity of an eyedropper would be a few milliliters
A milliliter of liquid is a few drops
The volume of liquid in a graduated cylinder might be 50 ml or 50 milliliters
The volume of liquid in a beaker might be 300 ml or 300 milliliters
One thousand milliliters equals 1 liter
A liter is close in volume to a quart
11.An instrument used to measure mass is a balance
The mass of a paperclip or a sheet of paper is about 1 gram or 1g
The mass of a book could be about 1 kilogram or 1kg
1000 grams equal 1 kilogram
Length and distance are measured in these metric units meters
Volume of a liquid or capacity of a container is measured in these metric units Liters
Mass is measured in these metric units grams
A centimeter is about as long as your fingernail
The length of each of these dashes - - - is about 1 or 2 millimeters (mm)
If your fingernail is one centimeter long, how long is it in millimeters? 10 (10mm = 1cm)
The distance from your waist to the floor could be about 1 meter or 1m
One-hundred centimeters equals 1 meter
The distance from Terraset to the nearest 7-Eleven is about 1 kilometer or 1km
One thousand meters equals 1 kilometer or 1km
In an experiment to measure the how different types of soil affect tulip growth, you fill five identical pots with different types of soil and place a tulip bulb in each. The variable in the experiment is the soil
The pots, tulip bulbs, water and amount of sunlight are should be the same for all of the pots. These are the constants
Objects in motion have ______ energy. kinetic
Potential energy is ________ energy. stored
Due to the pull of gravity, the higher an object is off the ground, the more ____________ it has. potential energy
When I hold a ball in the air, it has potential energy. When I let go, the ball starts to fall. Potential energy changes to kinetic energy
There are many forms of energy. Energy caused by the movement of electrons is electrical energy
Energy stored in food, batteries and fossil fuels like coal and gasoline is chemical energy
Energy in moving or spinning objects like gears, car wheels, or joggers, is _______ energy mechanical
33. Machines make work easier and help us work more efficiently
The six simple machines are inclined plane, pulley, lever, screw, wedge, and wheel & axle.
A combination of two more simple machines is a compound machine
Machines made of many compound machines are complex machines
An object that is sharp, like a knife, ax, or nail, is a wedge
Doorknobs, screwdrivers, and wheels of all sorts are wheel and axles
A seesaw, crowbar, shovel, and nutcracker are levers
A ramp, staircase, and ladder are inclined planes
A jar lid and corkscrew are screws
What simple machine is used to hoist a flag or raise window blinds? pulley
A wheelbarrow, scissors, and a bicycle are compound machines
Simple machines with fulcrums (pivot points) are usually levers
These simple machines have ropes or chains. pulleys
A pair of scissors has a lever and wedges
Two objects rubbing together create friction
Friction resists or stops motion, and creates heat
Unless acted on by a force, objects in motion tend to stay in motion and objects at rest remain at rest. This is the principal of inertia
It's harder to push a real truck than a toy truck because objects with more mass have more inertia
Which will light a bulb, an open or closed circuit? A closed circuit
If your string of holiday lights goes dark when one little bulb burns out, the string of lights is a series circuit
This circuit has more than one pathway for the flow of electrical current. If one bulb burns the others will remain lit. It is a Parallel circuit
Electrical energy moves easily through materials that are conductors.
Wires are usual made from ____ because it conducts electricity well. metal (often copper)
Material like rubber, plastic and wood do not conduct electricity well. They are insulators
This is a dry-cell battery. Common dry-cells usually have low voltage (1.5v or 9v)
Magnets attract these metals iron (steel) cobalt, nickel
60.The iron filings in this picture show ________created by a magnetic field. lines of force
Magnetism and _______ are very closely related. electricity
An electric current creates a magnetic field, and a magnetic field creates an _________ . electric current
If you rub your feet on the carpet, or rub a balloon on a wool sweater, you may create static electricity
Static electricity occurs when negatively charged _____ are rubbed off of one surface and on to another. electrons
Benjamin Franklin learned that lightning was a form of electricity. What kind of electricity? static electricity
Who invented the light bulb? Thomas Edison
Which plant part takes in water and nutrients? the root
Which part supports the plant and allows the movement of water and nutrients? the stem
Which plant part makes food for the plant? the leaves
The seed forms in the female reproductive part of the flower called the pistil
Pollen forms on the ends of the male reproductive parts of the flower called the stamen
The small leaves that form around the developing flower are the sepals
Pollen is transferred from the stamen to the pistil in a process called pollination
Most plants reproduce with seeds, but ferns and mosses reproduce with spores
Green plants produce their own food in a process called photosynthesis
To produce food, green plants use water, nutrients, sunlight, carbon dioxide (from the air) and chlorophyll.
Plants are green because of chlorophyll
Many plants enter a period of ______ in the winter, which is similar to hibernation for animals. During this period most of their normal activities stop. dormancy
An organism's _____ provides food, water, shelter and space. habitat
All energy comes from _____ , and then cycles through the food webs to all of the animals in the community. the sun
_______ get energy directly from the sun and use it to make food. Plants
Because plants produce their own food, they are called ___________ . producers
Other organism do not get their energy from the sun. They get their energy by eating plants, or eating animals that have eaten plants.
Organisms that get their energy from eating plants or other animals are called consumers
The sun's energy cycles through the ecosystem in this order sun->producers->consumers>decomposers
All of the interrelated food chains in an ecosystem make up a food web
Food chains and food webs always start with a plant
The food chain starts with a producer (a plant) and ends with a decomposer
Decomposers like ______ break down organisms and recycle them back to the nutrient pool. fungi
All of the living and nonliving things in an environment make up an ecosystem
Everything in an ecosystem depends on everything else. Humans often destroy ecosystems by polluting ponds, chopping down forests, etc.
The specific place an organism has in the food web is the organism's niche
The niche of every organism is different, and an organism's niche changes as it grows. A niche is the organism's role in the community, and includes what it does, what it eats, and what eats it.
All organisms have _________ that allow it to survive in its environment. adaptations
Structural adaptations are __________ that help an organism survive, like long beaks, webbed feet, camouflage. body parts
Behavioral adaptations are things that organisms do to survive. Examples of behavioral adaptations are migration, hibernation, instincts, etc
The measure of the amount of heat energy in the atmosphere is temperature
The amount of moisture in the air is humidity
The weight of the air causes air pressure
Air circulates around the Earth in big chunks called air masses
The boundary between two air masses is called a front
A warm front occurs when a warm air mass pushes out a cold mass. A warm front usually brings steady rain or drizzle followed by warmer temperatures.
A cold front occurs when a cold air mass pushes out a warm air mass. A cold front usually brings a short period of heavy rain or thunder, followed by clear colder weather.
A falling barometer often means rainy weather ahead.
What kind of cloud brings stormy weather, thunderstorms, and sometimes even tornadoes? Cumulonimbus
Puffy white clouds that look like cotton balls are cumulus clouds
High, thin, wispy clouds are cirrus clouds
Which cloud forms a gray blanket over the sky, often bringing steady rain or drizzle? stratus cloud
This instrument measures air pressure is a barometer
This instrument measures wind speed anemometer
This instrument measures moisture in the air hygrometer
This instrument measures precipitation rain gauge
These severe storms usually form over water in the Caribbean hurricanes
Earth is one of ____ planets that revolve around the sun. nine (eight now, officially)
Earth is the ______ planet from the sun. third
Venus, Mercury, Earth and Mars are the rocky inner planets
How far is the Earth from the sun? 150 million km
What does the Earth have that allows it to support life? water and an oxygen rich atmosphere
How does the Earth's atmosphere protect the Earth? It blocks out most of the sun's damaging rays.
Ancient Greeks like Aristotle and Ptolemy believed _________ was the center of our solar system, and the planets and the sun revolved around us. the Earth
Copernicus and Galileo tried to convince the world that ________ was actually the center of the solar system, and all of the planets revolve around it, and not around the Earth. the sun
The NASA Apollo missions sent astronauts to the ______ . the moon
About half of Virginia is considered to be in the Chesapeake Bay ________ because the surface water and all of the materials it carries drain into the Chesapeake Bay. watershed
Land drained by rivers west of Roanoke is part of the Mississippi _________. watershed
Much of Virginia is covered in ______, an important natural resource for Virginia. forests
An important energy resource mined in the southwestern part of Virginia is ________ . coal
Created by: erichholzshu

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