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Microbiology

Excelsior (TCN)

QuestionAnswer
A bacterial process of recombination that requires cell to cell contact is called conjugation
A bacterial process of recombination that involves the uptake of naked DNA is called transformation
Plasmodium falciparum is transmitted by a mosquito
Food poisoning is caused by Staphylococcus aureus
Rheumatic fever is caused by Streptococcus pyogenes
Gas gangrene is caused by Clostridium perfringes
Vaginitis is caused by candida albicans
Anthrax is caused by a bacterium
A disease that has been eradicated is smallpox
The usefulness of penicillin for treating bacterial infections was discovered by Fleming
Proved the germ theory of disease Koch
Who first utilized aseptic technique in hospitals? Lister
A component that is common in prokaryotes but not found in eukaryotes is peptidoglycan
100 degree centigrade can be tolerated by bacterial spores
Bacterial motility is produced by flagella
A capsule is a virulence factor for Streptococcus pneumoniae
Energy production occurs in the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane
Fungi contain chitin
Capsules are comprised of polysaccharides
Bubonic plague is transmitted by fleas
The most important difference between a eukaryote and a prokaryote is the presence of a nucleus
An autotroph is an organism that can use carbon dioxide as a carbon source
A bacterium that grows only in the absence of oxygen is an obligate anaerobe
A organism that grows well at 37 degrees C is a mesophile
Rapid growth of bacteria occurs in the log phase
Preparation of rapid growth occurs in the lag phase
The building blocks for translation are amino acids
The most effective way for bacteria to transfer multiple antibiotic resistance is by plasmid transfer by conjugation
The majority of human pathogens are mesophiles
What causes the reactions of anabolism and catabolism to occur? enzymes
Conjunctivitis in the newborn is often caused by Chlamydia or Neisserial gonorrhea
How do Cyanobacteria obtain their energy? photosynthesis
Spontaneous changes in genes occurs because of mutagenesis
Pasteurization of milk involves heating the milk to temperatures less than boiling
What cell type mediates allergic reactions in the tissues? mast cell
The smallest chemical recognized by an Ab is called a hapten
The genus of the organism that is the cause of a severe intestinal infection is Vibrio
It is most important to obtain an isolated culture from a respiratory infection because an identification is not otherwise possible
The ______ ______ ____ stops genes needed for lactose metabolism from being expressed lactose repressor protein
Pathogenic bacteria often attach to human tissue by means of fimbriae
What component of the bacterial cell wall gives it rigidity? peptidoglycan
The gelatinous contents within the bacterial envelope is called the cytoplasm
The correct morphological term for a rod shaped bacterium is bacillus
Chlamydia cannot live outside a host cell
When bacteria carry out respiration, the electrons finally travel through the electron transport chain to what component? oxygen
The most important cellular organelle in the destruction of a pathogen is the lysosome
What indicates the correct relationship for fungi molds and hyphae
Cyanobacter can fix nitrogen
Basal body, flagellin, hook are parts of bacterial flagella
What produces the greatest amount of energy? electron transport
The most common cause of mononucleosis is Epstein-Barr virus
Viruses are intracellular parasites
Viruses contain a nucleocapsid
Viruses contain either ______ or _____, but never both. DNA; RNA
The protein subunit of which the viral coat is made is the capsomere
The presence of virus particles in blood is called viremia
When bacteriophage becomes lysogenic, it integrates its ______ into the host but does not grow DNA
In the life cycle of a virus, ______ refers to removing the outer layers of the virus uncoating
Syncytia are characterized by __________ giant cells multinucleated
The greatest number of yearly infections is caused by viruses
Chemically, the most abundant part of a living microbe is water
The specific characteristic of heterotrophs is that they obtain carbon from organic compounds
Microbes that require special growth factors are called fastidious
The acquisition of nutrients from the surrounding medium by an energy requiring process is called active transport
An organism that grows at pH 2 would be called an acidophile
What do sulfa drug inhibit? folic acid synthesis
One organism being helped by a second while the second is neither helped nor harmed refers to symbiosis
An appropriate test to measure the number of living bacteria is viable plate count
The most important advantage of solid media over broth is that it allows specific colonies to be isolated
At the end of the log phase, bacteria go into the stationary phase
When rod shaped bacteria are found in chains, the proper prefix to use for morphology is strepto-
What kinds of microbes are observed from water puddles when observed in the light microscope? all kinds except viruses
Concerning the lac operon of E.coli, when the ____ is bound to the ______, the operon is active. inducer; repressor
______ are inherited from generation to generation mutations
Mutations can be caused by x-rays
The Ames test is used to identify mutagens
An absence of life indicates sterilization
Detergents primarily acto on microbes by dissolving the lipid membranes
Autoclave sterilization is generally achieved at 121 degrees C at 15 pounds for 15 minutes
The beta lactam ring of penicillins is destroyed by B-lactamase
The best chemical antiseptic must be determined for each situation
We vaccine adults to protect the unborn from rubella virus
The best gaseous disinfectant is ethylene oxide
A _____ drug is active against a broad range of different microbes broad spectrum
To be valuable, an antibiotic must always selectively inhibit the infectious agent
Para aminobenzoic acid is synthesized by bacteria
B-lactamases make bacteria resistant to penicillin by enzymatically degrading the drug
An antibiotic reserved for the treatment of tuberculosis is isoniazid
The best antiherpes simplex drug is acyclovir
The antiviral agent that acts to stop uncoating is amantadine
Aminoglycosides are known to damage hearing
The greatest number of antibiotic allergic reactions because of widespread use is due to penicillins
The simplest techniques for determining antimicrobial susceptibility is the Kirby Bauer technique
Normal flora can be found on skin, mouth, vagina, etc
Staphylococcus epidermidis, streptococcus, candida albicans are resident to humans
Genetic defects in immunity, immunosuppressive therapy, malnutrition predispose people to opportunistic infections
The site for infection for amoebiasis is the gastrointestinal tract
M-protein mediated attachement to epithelial cells of the throat is associated with streptococcus pyogenes
An intoxication may be caused by ingestion of toxin without live microbes
An infectious reservoir frequently includes an asymtomatic human carrier
Some natural barriers to infection skin, saliva, acidity of stomach
Pneumonic plague is spread via aerosols
_______ is a notably long lived cell macrophage
What cell type matures in the thymus gland? T lymphocyte
Antibody molecules are made by the plasma cells
The central cell of cell mediated immunity is the Th or CD4 cell
Inflammation helps because increased ________ _______ allows better access for __________. vascular permeability; phagocytes
Opsonization is inhnanced by antibodies
_______ can both kill and opsonize complement
The complement membrane attack complex consists of C6-C7-C8-C9
Acquired immunity has the hallmark of memory and specificity
Immunity with attenuated microbial vaccine produces active immunity
What type of antibody has its principal role in secretions outside the body such as mucous and saliva? IgA
Interleukin I is produced by macrophages
A viral envelope is encoded by the host cell's genes
What is likely to grow in the vagina when a woman is taking a broad spectrum antibiotic? Candida
What part of the antibody molecule binds to antigens? the variable region of the light and heavy chains
What cell processes and presents antigen? Macrophage
When cells of the acquired immune system undergo population expansion including memor cells, they increase exponentially
A source of Legionnaires' disease is water cooling towers
The freqency of antibiotic resistance is believed to have increased because of large scale use in animal feeds
Virus infected cells and cancer cells can be destroyed outright by cytotoxic T cells
Toxoid vaccines result in ______ ______ to the corresponding toxin. neutralizing immunity
Testing blood for antibodies against an infectious disease is referred to as serology
Who was the first to propose looking for magic bullets or antibiotics? Ehrilich
Who was the first to recommend hand washing to prevent disease spread? Semmelweis
Type IV hypersensitivy injury is caused by cell mediated immunity
People who are atopic have high levels of IgE
Chemoautotrophs use what for energy? minerals and rocks
Bacteria that have lost the ability to grow on a specific sugar are called auxotrophs
Some autoimmune diseases- systemic lupus erythematous, insulin dependant diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis
Some products of fermentation- lactic acid, ethanol, vinegar
What Staph. aureus disease is associated with tampons. toxic shock syndrome
In ______ disease patients show normal delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions, normal phagocytic activity of PMN, and a normal thymic shadow on X-ray Bruton
Penicillin antibiotic therapy will be most effective against Staphylococcal and Streptococcal infections
Scalded skin syndrome is caused by the same agent that causes boils
_________ is of considerable concern in the dental practice subacute endocarditis
The gram positive Neisseria are usually susceptible to penicillin
The most powerful microbial toxin known is botulinum toxin
The Mycobacteria are unusually hard for the host to overcome because they have a waxy cell wall
The tine or Mantoux test for TB tests for what type of immune response? cell mediated immunity
Rabies is most likely acquired from mammals
The best prevention from whooping cough is DPT vaccine
The principal cell killed by the HIV virus is T helper or CD4
A chancre is a symptom of primary syphiis
Most fungal infections are acquired from the environment
Ringworm is caused by dermatophyte
Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate
An infection caused by a protozoan transmitted in fresh water is giardiasis
Tapeworms are typically transmitted by undercooked meat
A virus that becomes latent in nerves of the head is herpes simplex I
Our best defense against viruses is vaccines
The varicella zoster virus is the cause of chicken pox
Hepatitis B virus destroys liver cells
Genital warts are caused by papilloma virus
Antigenic drift and shift are hallmarks of influenza viruses
Some viruses can spread to adjacent cells and avoid contacting antibodies by syncytial formation
A severe congenital disease is caused by rubella
Kaposi's sarcoma is associated with infection by HIV
A virus that contains reverse transcriptase is HIV
What is the effect of HIV on CD4 cells? Cell death
There are bacteria that derive their energy from the Earth's principal resource which is the Sun
Most nitrogen fixation requires legumes and Rhizobium
Microbes that grow in cold climates are often psychrophili
A protein that causes a given gene or operon to start expressing is called an inducer
Microbial synthesis of DNA is called anabolism
How would you sterilize an enzyme? ultrafiltration
Staphylococcal exfoliation causes desquamation
Acute endocarditis is most associated with streptolysins
The most common cause of septicemia in the newborn is Streptococcus agalactiae
A test that uses antibodies to distinguish different strains of pneumococcus is the Quellung test
Legionella pneumophila is associated with aerosol spread
What organism cannot synthesize ATP for itself? Chlamydia pneumoniae
Adults visit their doctos the most frequently for bacteriuria due to E coli
Zoonotic transmission is observed for salmonellosis
What bacterium has a strong association with stomach cancer? Helicobacter pylori
How are bubonic and pneumonic plagues transmitted? fleas and respiratory aerosols
What disease is a concern for biological warfare? Anthrax
A stiff neck is the most characteristic feature of meningitis
Neisseria mengingitidis is susceptible to penicillin
An infected woman is more likely than an infected man to miss recognizing this symptom chancre
The great imposter is used to refer to secondary syphilis
Hansen's disease decreases ability to sense touch and is also called leprosy
What is the primary target for most antifungal drugs? Ergosterol
A flatoxins are unusual in that they can cause liver cancer
A woman presents with a white, cheese like vaginal discharge and pruritis. What is she most likely to have? Vulvovaginitis
What is the number one secondary infectious agent seen in AIDS patients? Pneumocystis carinii
A disease that is most common in the Ohio-Mississippi River drainage area is spread from bird droppings and is diagnosed as a yeast in bronchoalveolar lavage washings is histoplasmosis
The feeding form of Giardia lamblia is called trophozoite
Sleeping sickness following a tsetse fly bite is associated with Trypanosoma
What do malarial merozoites infect? red blood cells
What body site renders Plasmodium species resistant to antiparasitic agents? liver
What disease can cause two to three day cycles of chills, fever with headache and delirium, and exhaustion with profuse sweating? malaria
What organism has been associated with diarrhea and transmission on raspberries from Central America Cyclospora cayetanensis
A parasite that is likely to damage the liver and have a life cycle stage in a snail is a fluke
Perianal itching suggests use of the cellophane tape test to identify pinworm
Reyes syndrome is caused by chicken pox or influenza and aspirin
The agent that causes swimming pool conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis is adenovirus
What viral vaccine is associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome and neural damage? influenza virus
A red rash that starts on the head and trunk, moves out to the extremeties, and lasts seven days is normally due to measles virus
A common surface antigen vaccine produced in yeast cells that is especially important to health care workes today is hepatitis B
The alcohol in alcoholic beverages is normally produced by yeast
For fermentation to occur there needs to be a lack of oxygen
Bacillus thuringiensis makes a natural pesticide
Members of Streptomyces are important in the production of antibiotics
What would we call the process of adapting a virus to carry a toxin gene into a plan pest? genetic engineering
Water that is free of infectious agents is called potable
What microbe shells are used to decontaminate water supplies? Diatoms
What ocean zone contains the greatest number of microbes? Littoral
Air is forced through sewage to help aerobic bacteria grow
Using microbes to degrade contamination of the environment is called bioremediation
Actinomycetes as Nocardia and Streptomyces are commonly found in the soil
Cellulose, a difficult carbohydrate to degrade, is degraded primarily to Cytophaga
Created by: excbchic