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biology chapter 37

QuestionAnswer
What are the 4 functions of the circulatory system - Transports nutrients and wastes - Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide - Transports hormones - Distributes heat
what are the 4 components of the circulatory system - Blood vessels - Lymphatic vessels - Blood - Heart
network of tubes through which the blood moves blood vessels
intertwine with the blood vessels and recover fluid that leeks out of the blood vessels lymphatic vessels
mixture of specialized cells and fluid blood
muscular pump heart
what is the pathway of the circulatory system Heart -> arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries: gas and metabolic exchange -> venules -> veins -> heart
the very thick walls have to be able to expand arteries
very thin so that exchanges can occur it is several miles long and they can stretch along the united states capillaries
largest vein that leads into the heart vena cava
collects 3 letters of fluid per day that leads out of the capillaries it drains back into the veins in the lower part of the neck lymphatic system
the non cellular portion, 90% water and 10% solute, is composed of metabolites and waste, salts and ions and proteins blood plasma
what are the 3 blood types - RBC (erythrocytes) - WBC (leukocytes) - Platelets
red blood cells, flat disks with a collapsed center RBC (erythrocytes)
about 4 months and is produced by stem cells in the bone RBC (erythrocytes)
decrease level of red blood cells anemia
white blood cells WBC (leukocytes)
•No hemoglobin •primary cells of the immune system •Leukemia WBC (leukocytes)
un-nucleated cells and key role is in blood clotting Platelets
- Blood clotting - Hemophilia platelets
lack of one of the looting proteins hemophilia
due to the type of antigen coating outside the red blood cells blood types
if Antigen on RBC are present +
if Antigen on RBC are not present -
1st baby: Rh – mom /h + baby —> baby fine- blood only mixes at birth, and during that short span, that the baby is fine
2nd baby: mom treated baby fine- mom has been developing more antibodies after the first baby, therefore a problem could occur, so they give a shot to the mom after the birth of the first child, to kill the rh+ antigens so no antibodies a pre developed, still are monitored
right side of the heart pulmonary circulation loop
Pumps oxygen poor blood through pulmonary arteries to lungs —> gas exchange —> back to left side of heart pulmonary circulation loop
left side of the heart systemic circulation loop
Pumps oxygen rich blood to tissues —> deoxygenated blood returns to right side by veins systemic circulation loop
measures blood pressure Sphygmomanometer
Diastolic pressure low pressure – relaxation of heart
Systolic pressure high pressure – contraction of heart
ex) 120/80 Systolic/diastolic
100 – 130 systolic
70-90 diastolic
high blood pressure, if in-treated can lead to heart damage, stroke, and kidney failure Hypertension
measures the tiny electrical impulses produced by the heart muscles when it contracts Electrocardiogram
people affected by some form of cardiovascular disease 16% or approx. 42 million affected
when an area of a heart muscle does not receive enough blood (oxygen) and it results in the death of cardiac muscle cells heart attack
•Can be caused by a Blood clot •Can also occur if arteries become blocked by deposits of Fatty materials in the inner walls of the heart heart attack
build up of fatty deposits on the inner walls of the arteries and blood flow becomes restricted Atherosclerosis
hardening of the arteries occurs, when calcium is deposited in the fatty build up, therefore it can't expand so the heart has to work harder Arteriosclerosis
3 things in the Respiratory system Respiratory passages, lungs and thoracic cavity
what is the pathway of the respiratory system Breathe in —> nose filters dust/ epithelial tissue lining nasal cavity moistens and warms air —> pharynx —> larynx —> trachea —> bronchi —> lungs
suspended in the thoracic cavity, bounded on the sides by the ribs and the diaphragm from underneath lungs
each lung is subdivided into three hundred million of chambers clustered like grapes alveoli
what is the process of breathing (inhalation) Air moves into lungs when air pressure inside them is decreased by expanding walls of chest cavity —> diaphragm contracts and moves downward and rib cage moves upward and outward —> volume of chest cavity increases and air rushes in
what is the process of breathing (exhalation) diaphragm and ribs return to original position —> pressure by ribs and diaphragm forces air of the lungs
the bronchioles of the lungs become restricted due to their sensitivity to certain stimuli in the air making it difficult to exhale asthma
the alveoli in the lungs loose their elasticity making it difficult for the alveoli to release their air during exhalation leading to a great reduction in the efficiency of gas exchange Emphysema
abnormal cell growth, less than 10% of victims live more than five years after diagnosis lung cancer
Created by: Lauren Bowers