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Biology Exam

General Bio B110 CH. 20 - 25

QuestionAnswer AAnswer Part BAnswer Part C
CH 20: Modern Antarctica Devoid of almost all life, but didn't used to be that way Paleontologists have found signs that indicate past life included: dinosaurs, reptiles, mammals,flightless birds, ferns, trees, amphibians, freshwater fish, + aquatic beetles
Fossils (What are they? What do they do?) preserved remains or impressions of individual organisms that lived in the past (often found in sedimentary rock) provide evidence that past organisms were unlike current organisms -> life has evolved th/o time ages of fossils correspond to their order in the fossil record
Example (Fossils) Precambrian Invertebrate,Trilobite, Seed Fern, Termite (in amber), Velociraptor, petrified tree trunk
Radioisotopes unstable, isotopic forms of elements that decay to more stable forms over time used to determine fossil dating by dating rock above and below the fossil that does not contain radioisotopes of its own Ex: carbon 14, uranium 235
Why is the fossil record incomplete? b/c most organisms decompose rapidly fossils that are formed can be destroyed by common geologic process (erosion, extreme heat or pressure) unique set of circumstance is required to form, preserve, + discover fossils -> creates large gaps in fossil record
What groups of mammals are whales closely related to? artiodactyls -> hoofed land mammals (cows, hippos) seen: changes in ankle bone structure
What 3 events does the study of life on Earth focus on? origin of cellular organisms beginning of multicellular life colonization of land
Timeline (Part 1) Precambrian (4.6 bya) origin of life Cambrian (540 mya) invertebrates fill the sea Ordovician (490 mya) plants + fungi begin to colonize land
Timeline (Part 2) Silurian (445 mya) diversity in fish Devonian (415 mya) amphibians appear Carboniterous (360 mya) Earth covered in forests
Timeline (Part 3) Permian (300 mya) age of reptiles begin Triassic (250 mya) dinosaurs evolve + spread Jurassic (200 mya) large dinosaurs (no stegosaurus) yes t-rex
Timeline (Part 4) Cretaceous (145 mya) increase in flowering plants, extinction of last dinosaurs Paleogene/Neogene (65 mya) age of mammals begin Quaternary (2.6 mya) humans evolve
About how many species have been described and cataloged by biologists? About 1.7 million EXTRA: species alive today represent less than 1 % of all species that have ever lived on Earth
CH 21: Biosphere + Ecology Biosphere - includes all the organisms on Earth together w/ the physical environments in which they live Ecology - the scientific study of biotic + abiotic environments and organisms that live in them (form a web of interconnected relationships)
Predator-Prey Relationships - rabbits introduced in Australia, dingos didn't know to hunt them at first, so they ate most of the greenery + depleted food sources for other herbivores
Climate the prevailing weather conditions experienced in a region over long periods of time * strongest environmental influence of organisms
How does solar radiation shape climate? angle that sun strikes Earth influences different climates increased solar energy at equator + surrounding tropical regions promotes photosynthesis-> increases productivity in plants -> more biomass -> consumers depend on productivity of producers
How wind currents affect climate Earth has 6 convection cells -> warm, moist air rises + cool, dry air sinks -> generally consistent wind patterns -> prevailing winds - usually blow from a consistent direction in a given location when cool air from polar regions collides with warm air moving north, precipitation results in temperate regions
How water currents affect climate Rotation of Earth, differences in water temp b/w poles + tropics, + directions of prevailing winds contribute to the formation of ocean currents -w/o the warming effect of the water carried by currents such as Gulf Stream, climates around the world would be much different - North: oceans clockwise, South counterclockwise
Biomes (What they are) categorized based on unique climatic + ecological features of each such region Terrestrial (land) + Aquatic (water)
Terrestrial Biomes location determined by climate -> effects of temperature + moisture on different species cause biomes to be found under consistent conditions extent + distribution is strongly influenced by humans
Tundra frozen 10 months/yr, receives less precipitation than many deserts 25 % of Earth's land -> trees scarce -> dominated by low-growing plants: grasses, sedges, moss, + lichens permafrost - permanently frozen solid soil found below surface layers of tundra
Zebra Mussels Invasion into the great lakes and North Am. is example of the impact humans have on the biosphere
How major features of Earth's surface shape climate large bodies of water absorb + release heat more slowly -> creating a milder climate mountains produce a rain shadow effect -> little precipitation falls on the side of the mountain that faces away from prevailing winds
Boreal Forest largest terrestrial biome, sub-Arctic landmass (b/c immediately south of tundra) soil is thin + nutrient poor, rainfall is low -> plant diversity is low + conifers dominate vegetation ex: Canada
Temperate Deciduous Forests occur in regions w/ a distinct winter that lasts 4-5 months + precipitation is evenly distributed th/out year greater species diversity (plants + animals) than tundra/boreal deciduous trees are dominant vegetation
Grassland found in temperate + tropical latitiudes receive 25 - 100 cm of precipitation annually soils in some are exceptionally deep + fertile -> therefore most have been converted to agriculture
Chaparral shrub-land biome characterized by cool, rainy winters + hot, dry summers (ex: California) dominated by dense growths of scrub oak + other drought-resistant plants soil is poor + most species are adapted to hot, dry conditions
Desert 1/3 of land surface, defined by its lack of precipitation air lacks moisture + cannot moderate daily temperature fluctuations plants have small leaves + can produce enormously long tap-roots -> majority of animal species are nocturnal
Tropical Forest warm temperatures + about 12 hrs of daylight yr round -> abundant sunshine + moisture makes it most biodiverse biome home to 50% of plant + animal species more than half of the original tropical rainforest lost to logging + agriculture
Aquatic Biomes cover about 75% of Earth's surface salt content, water temperature, water depth, + speed of water flow are defining characteristics Freshwater + Marine
How are aquatic biomes influenced by terrestrial biomes + climate? water drains from terrestrial into aquatic through rivers + streams, which carry nutrients into the ocean also influenced by worldwide events like El Nino El Nino, (10 or so yr cycle) warm water flow changes, affects world wide like tornadoes, excess drought, etc
How are aquatic biomes influenced by human activity? Wetlands + estuaries are destroyed by human development OR are negatively affected by anthropogenic pollution also suffers when humans modify/destroy the terrestrial biomes they occupy
Lakes Standing bodies of water that are surrounded by land + are at least 2 hectares (5 acres) in size the primary productivity of a lake + the abundance + distribution of its life forms are strongly influenced by nutrient concentrations, water depth, + the extent to which the lake water is mixed
Rivers bodies of freshwater whose physical characteristics tend to change along their length move continuously in a single direction
Wetlands characterized by standing water shallow enough that rooted plants emerge above the water surface Bogs are stagnant wetlands whose productivity + species diversity is low marshes + swamps are highly productive wetlands
Estuary region where a river empties into the sea + is the shallowest marine ecosystem abundance + diversity of life make them one of the most productive ecosystems on our planet marshes + swamps are highly productive wetlands
Coastal Region underwater that stretches from the shoreline to the edge of the continental shelf also highly productive
Estuary region where a river empties into the sea + is the shallowest marine ecosystem abundance + diversity of life make them one of the most productive ecosystems on our planet
Intertidal Zone part of the coast that is closest to shore extends from the highest tide mark to the lowest tide mark
Coastal Region underwater that stretches from the shoreline to the edge of the continental shelf also highly productive
Coastal Benthic Zone may lie as deep as 200 m (656 ft) below the water surface relatively stable habitat + is rich in sediments containing dead + decaying organic remains benthic zone is the seabed floor in any of the underwater zones
Intertidal Zone part of the coast that is closest to shore extends from the highest tide mark to the lowest tide mark
Oceanic Region begins about 40 miles offshore relatively nutrient-poor
Abyssal Zone begins where the continental shelf ends + the sea floor drops to a depth of approx 6000 m (about 20,000 ft)
How can invasive mussels harm ecosystems? An introduced species can become a major pest in a new environment (invasive species) Eurasian zebra mussel displaced native mussels in great lakes also stripped away most of the planktonic producers that other animals eat
CH 22: Easter Island once home to diverse group of species, now a barren grassland example of what happens when humans use more resources than the biosphere
Population Ecology the study of the number of organisms in a particular place essential for solving real-world problems (protecting endangered species or controlling pest species)
What is a population? a group of interacting individual of a single species located w/i a particular area Population size (N) refers to total number of individuals in the population Population density refers to the number of individuals per unit of area
What are changes in population size dependent on? birth + death rates and immigration + emigration rates all are affected by the environment ex: Monarch butterflies - migrate to warmer temperatures for winter
Exponential Growth rapid population growth that occurs w/ increases by a constant proportion over time doubling time (to reach 2N) can be used as a measure of population growth limited by resources + not seen under natural conditions
How is growth limited? Habitat is an environment in which an organism lives + can limit population growth (By space + nutrients) Ex: Reindeer introduced to Island in Alaska, population rose rapidly then crashed due to overgrazing (J shaped)
Logistic Growth an S shaped curve considers change in growth rate as resouces become limited Ex: Willow trees
Carrying Capacity the maximum population size that can be sustained @ cappacity, growth rate = 0 Ex: Paramecium Caudatum
Density Dependent change with population density birth + death rates (growth limiting) Ex: seeds reproduced/planted
Density Independent factors not related to the density of the population Ex: weather, natural disasters, environmental pollutants
Pattern of Population Growth J Shaped patterns indicate rapid population growth, which continues until all resources are depleted S Shaped pattern indicates rate of growth slows as population nears carrying capacity population cycle shows 2+ species change together because they are influenced by the (lynx + hare)
Irregular Fluctuations Populations change in size over time (spastically - chance) populations of same species may experience different patterns of growth
Biomagnification concentrations of PCB are integrated into fats of smaller unit of food web as other members higher in the food web eat the fats of smaller units, due to longevity of life, concentrations double each cycle ex: phytoplankton -> zooplankton -> crustaceans -> minnows -> trout -> osprey
CH 23: Toxoplasma Gondii single celled parasite, most often contracted from raw meat, alter brain activity often found in mice, makes them unafraid of cats which is then passed onto cats
Ecological Community an association of different species that live in the same area greatly vary in size + complexity + characterized by their diversity Diversity has 2 components: species richness + relative species abundance
Species Richness the total number of species in an area
Relative Species Abundance how common individuals of a species are compared to others Ex: Same species of Trees in different communities
Interactions Among Species have huge effects on natural communities Mutualism, Commensalism, Exploitation, Competition
Mutualism (Symbiosis) both species benefit, therefore increasing survival + reproduction evolves when benefits of interaction outweighs the cost for both species Types: Gut Inhabitant, Behavioral, Seed Dispersal, Pollinator
Behavioral Goby + Shrimp Shrimp keeps 1 antenna on goby, sudden movements alert shrimp to danger
Gut Inhabitant Fruit Trees -> animal ingestion
Seed Dispersal Yucca Plants -> yucca moths
Pollinator Bees/plants
How can species abundance be affected by mutualism? by having indirect effects on species not a part of mutualism ex: Coral symbiosis Corals provide protection from predators, clear water, nitrogen + phosphorous + Zooxathellae provide energy + 90% of energy requirements
Commensalism a relationship where 1 partner benefits while the other is neither helped or harmed Ex: Barnacles + whales
Exploitation a variety of interactions when 1 species benefits, while the other is harmed 3 categories: herbivores (plants/plant parts), predators (kill other species for food), parasites (consumers that live in or on organisms they eat) consumers caused many species to evolve elaborate strategies to avoid being consumed
Induced Defenses responses that are stimulated by an attack from herbivores Ex: Cactus - Cactus Spines Ex: Camouflage
Warning Coloration used by prey to warn potential predators that they are heavily defended Ex: Monarch Butterfly or poison dart frog or coral snake
Mimicry type of adaption in which a species imitates the appearance of something unappealing to its would be predator Ex Viceroy Butterfly mimics Monarch, Scarlet King Snake mimics Coral Snake
Co-Evolution 2 species that interact trigger evolutionary change consequence of their interactions "one upping each other"
How can behaviors of organisms be altered as a result of exploitation from consumers? animals who live/feed in groups probably evolved as a result due to predation parasites cause behaviors in host organisms that benefit parasite
What is a possible result of exploitation? can drive organisms to extinction -> once exploited is extinct, exploiter must find new food source or become extinct
Competition interspecific is likely when 2 species share an important resource that's limited when 2+ species compete, each have a negative effect on each other b/c each uses resources needed by its competitor important in natural selection + can limit the distribution/abundance of species competing
Ecological Niche the sum total of the conditions + resources a population needs in order to survive + reproduce
Competitive Exclusion occurs when 1 species uses all the resources needed by another + results in extinction
Interference Competition 1 organism directly excludes another from use of a resource "out eats"
Exploitative Competition species indirectly compete for a shared resource each reduces the amount of resource available to the other
Niche Partitioning occurs when natural selection leads competing organisms to use their common niche in a more limited way as a method of reducing competition Ex: barnacles - Semibalanus feeds in lower zone while Chtamalus feeds in higher portions of shoreline
Character Displacement occurs when intense competition b/w species causes them to evolve differently over time Ex: Darwin's Finches (beaks)
How do species interactions shape communities? human actions + natural causes affect a species' chances of survival any changes in species diversity in a community will have a ripple effect
Food Chain a linear sequence of who eats whom in a community
Food Web made up of interconnected + overlapping food chains illustrates movement of energy + nutrients th/out a community Foundations consist of producers (plants + phytoplankton)
Consumers organisms that obtain energy by eating all or parts of other organisms or their remains Primary eat producers, secondary eat primary secondary can be extended to tertiary + quaternary
Keystone Species can include any producer or consumer of relatively low abundance that has a large influence on its community usually only noticed when they are removed or disappear from an ecosystem Ex: Sea star, sea urchins -> otters
Mature Communities species composition remains stable over a long period of time unlikely due to disturbances such as fires or windstorms
Succession process by which species in a community are replaced over time Primary occurs in a newly created habitat - 1st species to colonize may alter habitat in ways that cause later species to thrive or fail Secondary is the process by which state that existed before a disturbance is regained
How can climate affect community changes? Change in global climate causes slow but dramatic changes in the location + diversity of plant + animal species Human activities accelerate natural changes in global climate Continents move -> climates change -> large changes in communities
How do humans affect community structure? Can alter the frequency of a natural form of disturbance Some communities can reassemble, but species sizes + abundance are different Long term damages (from logging or overgrazing) can permanently alter
CH 24: Oil Spill in 2010 Drilling rig exploded, 5 billion barrels of crude oil spilled into gulf of Mexico stretched 22 miles under ocean's surface damage to Gulf ecosystem similar to long term effects from oil spill in Alaska in 1989
Ecosystem Ecology The study of how energy + materials are used in natural systems
How do Ecosystems function? defined by means through which energy is acquired by biotic community energy flows in only 1 direction through ecosystems @ each step, a portion of energy captured by producers is lost as metabolic heat
Nutrients required chemical elements + are largely recycled b/w organisms + the physical environment finite amount are absorbed by producers, cycled among consumers, + returned to environment
Ecosystem Processes physical, chemical, + biological processes that link the biotic + abiotic worlds in an ecosystem
Carbon Cycle driven by photosynthesis + respiration
Nitrogen Fixation turning gas to solid carried out by certain prokaryotes Ex: Nitrogen found in soil + water
Nitrogen Goes into environment through lightning good spread out, bad all piled together
Sulfur 95% from ocean sea spray cycles through terrestrial + aquatic systems quickly
Phosphorous only sedimentary cycle - > large impact on NPP eventually deposited to the sediment on the ocean floor
Eutrophication overfeeding nutrients into bodies of water from farmland runoff causes algae to be more abundant -> increase in NPP -> decrease/elimination of fish + other animals
How do human activities alter nutrient cycles? Acid rain - result from burning fossil fuel reduced fish populations + damaged acres of forests
CH 25: Decrease of Phytoplankton global population has decreased by 40% since 1950s warmer temperatures, decrease in phytoplankton, polar bears are struggling for survival due to expanding human population
Global Change evidenced by decline in biodiversity pollution has altered ecosystems climate change largely caused by humans
Land Transformation physical + biotic changes to land surface destruction of habitat for resource use, agriculture, urban growth
Water Transformation physical + biotic changes people make to the waters
Examples of Transformation aerial photos, satellite data, changing urban boundaries, destruction of natural habitats destruction of rainforests, conversion from grasslands to cropland urban development, sewage, nutrient runoff, pollution, + overfishing -> water
Bioaccumulation chemicals released can accumulate in an organism at concentrations higher than the abiotic environment
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) long lived organic molecules that bioaccumulate + can have harmful effects
Change in Biosphere: Pollutants CFC caused a decrease in ozone layer + contributed to ozone hole above Antarctica worldwide response -> many countries banned CFCs
Rise in Nutrients Nitrogen - grasses are eliminated by most resilient Carbon Dioxide levels contribute to global warming, risen significantly due to burning of fossil fuels, logging/fires, + industrial processes Rise in CO2 means more photosynthesis from plants
Greenhouse Effect gases trap + absorb heat -> temperatures rise
Consequences of Climate Change Decline of Arctic sea ice, sea levels rising, more acidic oceans, increased sever weather many species endangered (ex: coral reefs: 1/3 destroyed from bleaching, pollution, physical damage from storms)
Keys to minimizing Climate Change reduced use of fossil fuels increased energy efficiency increased reliance on renewable energy
Created by: maddiebee1993