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Simple Animal Test

what is radial symmetry? repeat structures around a central point
what is bilateral symmetry? split into 2 equal mirror image halves (right and left)
what is asymmetrical symmetry? not cut into any equal parts (no symmetry)
what does it mean to be eukaryotic? to have a true nucleus
what are the 4 essentials to be apart of the animal kingdom? must be eukaryotic, mutli-cellular, heterotroph, and no cell walls
what's another name for heterotroph? consumer
list from largest to smallest the cell speciation? cells, tissues, organs, organ system
what is the largest group of animals? invertebrates
what are cells? basic unit of all forms of life
what are tissues? a group of cells working together for the same function
what are organs? a group of tissues working together for the same function
what is the organ system? a group of organs working together for the same function
what is symmetrical symmetry? having similar/match parts
what is the dorsal? the back of the organism
what is the ventral? the belly of the organism
what is the anterior? the head of the organism
what is the posterior? the tail of the organism
what are the 7 functions animals need for survival? feeding/digestion, respiration (exchange of gases), circulation, excretion (removing chemical waste), response (nerve system), movement, and reproduction
what are the 9 animal phylas? porifera (sponges), cnidarian (coelenterates), platyhelminthes (flatworms), nematoda (round worms), annelida (segmented worms), Mollusca (mosslusks), arthopoda (arthopods), echhinodermata (echinoderms), chordata (chordates)
what is an example of porifera? sponges
what is the simplest animal phylum? porifera
what does porifera mean? pore bearing
describe the feeding of the sponge? flagella causes incoming current, water enters incurrent pore, collar cells capture and ingest food, amoebcytes bring digested nutrients to the rest of the sponge
what waste is flushed out in sponge? CO2 and nitrogen
what does the sponge not have? no nerve tissues, no specialized cells, or no muscle tissue
are sponges sessile? the adult sponges are sessile (not moving) while the larvae is free moving (swimming away from competition for material for survival)
what is budding? smaller version grows from the adult
what are gemmules? hard outer covering protecting a group of cells during unfavorable environmental conditions
what is regeneration? cut into pieces, they regrow into new adults
what is sexual reproduction? collar cells form sperm *fertilize another sponge's egg cells *larvae eventually attach to ocean floor and become adult sponge
what are the 3 basic characteristics of cnidarian? stinging cells called cnidocytes, 2 cell layers, and 2 body forms
what kind of symmetry do hydra have? radial
what are the 2 cell layers? epidermis: outer skin layer and endodermis: lining the gastrovasucalr cavity
what are cnidocytes? stinging cells lining the tentacles with nematocysts (coiled poison dart used to paralyze prey)
how many digestive tracts do hydra have? 2 way digestive tract
what is intracellular? endoderm cells extend pseudopods and form food vacuoles
what is extracellular? endoderm cells release enzymes into gastrovascular cavity
what do they diffuse across membranes? O2, CO2, and ammonia into gastrovascular cavity then exit through the mouth
what is a nerve net? loosely organized network of nerve cells
are polp sessile? yes
how are medusa able to swim? through jet propulsion
is budding asexual or sexual? asexual
what is sexual reproduction? egg and sperm join outside the organism (external fertilization)
what are the cnidaria's claims to fame? Stinging Cells, 2 cell layers, 2 body forms, Radial Symmetry, 2 way digestive tract, First simple nervous system
what is an example of Platyhelminthes? flatworms
what are their 3 basic characteristics? First animals to have bilateral symmetry 2. First animals to have 3 cell layers 3. Example : Planaria
what are their 3 cell layers? One tube body plan i. Ectoderm ii. Mesoderm iii.Endoderm
describe their feeding/digestion? First true digestive system 2. Path of food in Planaria a. Food enters mouth (on ventral side) b. Pharynx connects mouth to intestines c. intestines digest and absorb food d. Waste exits through the mouth (2 way digestive tract
describe their circulatory system? NO circulatory system–uses diffusion
describe their excretion? Flatworms have flame cells, assist the excretion of chemical wastes and excess water
what animal was first to use cephalization? Platyhelminthes
what is cephalization? concentration of sensory organs toward the anterior end (head) of organism
name their 3 sources of cephalization? 1. Auricles 2. Eyespots 3. Ganglia-connects to nerve cords allows Planaria to respond to environment
what is regeneration? the ability to replace parts lost due to injury (regrow)
are they asexual or sexual? asexual
what is Hermaphroditic mean? contain both male and female reproductive organs
how do they do this? Exchange sperm then fertilized eggs develop within the worm
what are examples of flatworms? Trematoda (flukes) a. parasitic flatworms b. two hosts i. snail and human
what is a scolex of the tapeworm? head region held in place by suckers and hooks
what is proglottids? all other sections of the worm
what are the flatworms claims to fame? 1. Three cell layers 2. Bilateral Symmetry 3. Cephalization 4. One tube body plan 5. First to have a brain 6. First to have organs 7. Flame cells 8. True muscle cells
Created by: KJohnson23