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Microbiology

Excelsior Exam (Various resources)

QuestionAnswer
Prokaryotes and bacteria also referred to as eubacteria
Eukaryotes include fungus, algae, and protozoa
_______may produce endotoxins –they have a thin peptidoglycan layer in cell walls and an outer LPS layer Gram negative bacteria
______bacteria may produce exotoxins Gram positive
_____bacteria have techoic acid and a thick peptidoglycan layer in cell walls Gram positive
______bacteria have waxy cells and stain pink red in an acid stain (ex: TB) Acid fast
________are the bacteria that are spore forming (endospores) Bacillus and Clostridium
_______ do not have cell walls Mycobacteria
_______ lack peptiglycan cell walls Archea
Members of archea love extreme conditions; they are ______ _________ _________ halophiles, thermophiles and psychrophiles
_______ fix oxygen and produces oxygen as a metabolic waste product Cyanobacteria
________ are resistive vegetaive forms of bacteria that can re-emerge when conditions are favorable Endospores
Algae are photosynthetic autotrophs
If cocci splits on 2 planes it is a tetra
________ are grapelike clusters of gram positive cocci Staphylococcus
______ consists of a capsid or core and nucleic acid Virus
The protein coat that surrounds the viral nucleic acid in a virion is called the capsid
_______ is composed of host materials and forms during maturation and release Virus envelope (not all viruses have envelopes)
______ is a virus that infects a bacteria Bacteriophage
_________ or________ is only capable of lysogeny-living in host without causing damage temperant phage or lytic (prophage because it is capable of becoming lytic or virulent phage)
Virulent phage or lytic is only capable of lysis
Spirochetes move via__________________ that encircle the cell axial filaments
An antigen reaction can activate ______ complement (complement causes cascade of actions)
_______________ are responsible for manufacture of antibodies B cells
________________ develop from stem cells. Mature in the lymph system and differentiate to plasma cells B cells
An antibody has a minimum of how many binding sites on an antigen? 2
_________ can cross the placenta IgG
______ is the first to synthesize in response to an antigen IgM
______ binds to mast cells (involved in allergic reactions) IgE
T cells mature in the thymus
A mature T helper cells has what cell surface proteins which are relative to antigen recognition? TCR, CD3, CD4, CD8
____ are important in activating other T cells to act T helper cells or HT
If there are no T cells there is no________. T cells activate__________ immunity; B cells
Hemolytic disease of the newborn due to Rh incompatibility is an example of_____ . The mechanism of this hypersensitivity reaction involves the mother’s anti-Rh antibodies binding to the red blood cells, triggering complement-mediated lysis class II hypersensitivity reaction
Activated complement biological activities 1.opsonization (enhancement of attachment phase of phagocytosis: 2. anaphylatoxin (incl, blood vessel permeability): 3. chemoattractant (attract phagocytes): 4. Membrane attack complex *lysis of targeted cell)
______ is used to make monoclonal antibodies hybridoma
Immune serum globulin comes from ______ or ______ donors human; animal
Tetanus vaccine is a toxoid
Systemic lupus erythematous causes ___________ complexes to form- this is a type _______ sensitivity reaction antigen antibody; 3
Giving a pregnant mother antiviral drugs prior to delivery decreases the chance of the child being born with HIV
___________ antibiotics can kill normal microbiota and allow opportunistic pathogens to grow broad spectrum
__________ microscopy is used to identify the agent that causes syphilis darkfield
___________ infections are difficult to treat because of antibiotic resistance nosocomial
_____________ is the most common cause of travelers diarrhea E coli
Strep throat is caused by S pyogenes
Rheumatic fever sequeled to strep is caused by S pyogenes
________ a sequel to strep throat is a result of S pyogens erthrogenic toxin Scarlet fever
_______ analysis is a diagnostic for meningitis CSF
_______________ causes toxic shock syndrome Staphylococcus aureus
_______________ of staphylococcus aureus is responsible for scalded skin syndrome Exfoliative toxin
Reactivation of latent ___________________ later in life causes shingles Varicella Zoster
_____________ is the causative agent to stomach ulcers helicobacter pylori
_____ is characterized by grayish membranous cover on pharynx diptheria
_______ disease is transmitted bia aerosolization of bacteria from aqueous reservoirs- ie air conditioner vents Legionnaires
Primary virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the ability to grow in a macrophage (responsible for formation of tubercle)
________ has symptoms similar to TB. They are differentiated by CXR and reaction mantoux Histoplasmosis
______ responsible for cholera binds to intestinal epithelial cells-activates host cell adenylate cyclase causing increased cAMP levels in host cells-leads to out pouring of Cl ions and water—leads to extreme diahrrhea Cholerea vibrio toxins
Herpes simplex type _______ virus establishes latency in nerve cells 2
________ is best viewed with a darkfield microscope syphillis spirochet
A virus is best viewed with an electron microscope
Reason that the smallpox virus could be eradicated. -humans are the only reservoir- no latency - effective vaccine
________ causes genital warts and have been implicated in the etiology of cervical cancer papillomaviruses
HIV is classified as a _______ or a _____ within the retroviruses retrovirus; lentivirus
A CD4 count less than ____ is diagnostic of aids 200
Alphaviruses such as EEE,WEE,VEE and flaviviruses such as yellow fever, dengue are transmitted by __________. Eradicating this can control disease mosquitos
Bites on the head and neck are especially dangerous because of the proximity to the brain. This is true in regard to being bitten by a ______ animal rabid
____________ block viral nucleic acid synthesis Nucleoside analogs
_____ block viral protein processing (reverse transcroptase production) protease inhibitors
_____ targets peptiglycan synthesis (cell wall synthesis) penicillin
______ is bacteriostatic- it stops growth of bacteria Tetracycline
_______ inactivates Penicillin (resistance) Beta lactamase
______ damage bacterial cytoplasmic membranes polymyxins
_____ inhibit bacterial protein synthesis Aminoglycosides
____ is a nucleic acid particle capable of autonomous replication plasmid
The target of most antifungal drugs is the plasma membrane
Resistance factors can be readily transferred by _____ and _____ transposin; R plasmids
_____ or ______ is needed for R plasmid transfer of resistance (conjugation) F factor; sex pilus
______ test measures minimum inhibitory concentration of a drug (minimum needed to stop pathogenic growth)-the point with no growth= _____________ broth dilution; MIC
To make champagne, conditions must be anaerobic (absent of oxygen)
As cheese ages it gets _______ and ______ in taste harder; sharper
Strictly ______ bacteria are responsible for spoilage in low acid canned foods anaerobic
_______ cause milk to spoil in the fridge psychrotrophs
____ denature proteins and removes some lipids alcohol
Mercury compounds are used for microbial control
_____ is usd to disinfect wounds- not effective for deep wounds hydrogen peroxide
_____ inhibits microbial proteins- it is an antiseptic iodine
________ only use the lytic cycle virulent bacteriophage
A _______ does not have nucleic acid prion
All endotoxins produce the same signs and symptoms regardless of species of microbe
Microorganisms in the lower respiratory tract are trapped in mucous produced by goblet cells, then propelled upward by synchronized beating of cilia
____________ is a defensive system consisting of at least 20 interacting serum proteins compliment
Tetanus vaccine is a toxoid
A transfusion reaction is a type_____ allergic reaction II
______ produces more ATP than anaerobic respiration Oxygenetic
_______ and ______ use anerobic respiration to produce ATP molecules fermentation; glycolysis
_______ produces the most ATP Electron transport chain
cellular reproduction is at its most active during the log phase or exponential phase
_______ phase is when cell death equals new cells and the metabolic activity of cells decline stationary phase
________phase occurs when deaths out number new cells death phase or logarithmic decline
_____is defined as a phase of sustained growth as a result ofenvironmental change for a microorganizm where it is getting accustomed withnew growth contitions. Lag phase
_____ phase of growth produces a stable population-the death rate is equal to the birth rate LAG
_____ require organic material for growth fungi
The type of bond between molecules of water in a beaker of water is hydrogen bond
The counterstain in the acid-fast stain is a basic dye
Force from which a solvent moves across a semipermeable membrane from a higher to lower concentraion defines osmotic pressure
A culture medium consisting of agar, human blood, and beef heart is a _____ medium complex
Ethylene oxide is capable of sterilization
Products of transcription rRNA, tRNA, mRNA
A colleague has used computer modeling to design an improved enzyme. To produce this enzyme, the next step is to determine the nucleotide sequence for the improved enzyme
Multicellular, have eukaryotic cells, can photosynthesize, use organic energy sources..this is true of the Kingdom Plantae
Staphylococcus and Streptococcus can be differentiated in a laboratory by growth in high salt concentrations
Fungi,more often than bacteria are responsible for decomposition of plant material because they can tolerate low moisture conditions
Criterion to classify viruses- Morphology, nucleic acid, size, and number of capsomeres
The major significance of Koch's work was that microorganisms cause disease
Most pathogens that gain access through the skin enter through hair follicles and sweat glands
______ exhibits the highest phagocytic activity. neutrophils
A protein that inactivates or kills an antigen is an antibody
If a patient shows the presence of antibodies against Herpes simplex, this indicates -the patient may have the disease- may have been vaccinated- a transfusion may have passively introduced the antibodies
What may result from systemic anaphylaxis? shock
Most of the available antimicrobial agents are effective against bacteria
Impetigo S aureus
erysipelas S. pyogenes
Acne P. acne
otitis externa P. aeruginosa
A healthy state can exist, it is encapsulated, it requires a blood supplement in media, it usually infects children..this describes H. influenza
Streptococcal sore throat, diptheria, pneumococcal pneumonia, scarlet fever...these are treated with penicillin
Amoebic dysentery and bacillary dysentery differ in the etiologic agent
Pylonephritis may result from urethritis, cystitis, ureteritis, systemic infection
81% if microorganisms on the soil are bacteria
As cheese ages it gets more acidic
Maintains the shape of the cell, is sensitive to lysosome, contains techoic acid..this is true of a gram positive cell wall
An organism that uses oxygen or grows without it is referred to as a facultative anaerobe
___ can not produce themselves outside a host viruses
_______ is acquired during the course of hospitalization nosocomial infections
Pneumonia, tuberculosis, measles..are contracted via the respiratory route
Mechanical factors to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection- layers of cells, tears, saliva
Plasma cells are activated by an antigen
The chemical mediators of anaphylaxis are found in basophils and mast cells
The first antibiotic discovered was penicillin
Coccus, coagulase positive, catalase positive, gram positive--this is characteristic of S. aureus
What is the most common method of spread of tuberculosis airborne
The Schick test is used to measure immunity to diptheria
________ is caused by nonmotile, gram negative, coccobacillus Pertussis
A beefy red oropharynx and white patches on the throat are most commonly associated with streptococcal infection
Pneumonia is best detected by CXR
The distinguishing feature regarding atypical pneumonia is the microorganism has no cell wall
The most common method of transmission of Legionnaire disease is contaminated water
The usual incubation period for the common cold is 1-4 days
What type of influenza causes cases here and there at any given time? type C
Kopliks spots are seen in which infectious disease? Rubeola
The reservoir for rubeola include humans
The MMR vaccine immunizes against measles, mumps, rubella
Chicken pox varicella zoster virus
Cryotococcus neoformans is primarily a pulmonary disease
Histoplasmosis is directily related to contamination from chickens, birds, bats
What form of Aspergillus is usually fatal? disseminated aspergillosis
An organic nutrient essential to an organism's metabolism that cannot be synthesized itself is termed a growth factor
The source of the necessary elements of life is an inorganic environmental reservoir
An organism that can synthesize all its required organic components from CO2 using energy from the sun is a photoautotroph
An obligate halophile requires high salt
Chemoautotrophs can survive on _______ and _____ alone minerals; CO2
A pathogen would most accurately be described as a parasite
A substance that would be moved by passive transport is water
A cell exposed to a hypertonic environment will ________ by osmosis lose water
Active transport of a substance across a membrane requires the expenditure of ATP
Environmental factors such as temperature and pH exert their effect on the ____ of microbial cells. enzymes
Psychrophiles would be expected to grow at refrigeration temperatures
Superoxide ion is toxic to strict anaerobes because they lack dismutase
The time required for a cell to undergo binary fission is called the generation time
In a viable plate count, each ____ represents a ____ from the sample population colony; cell
During the phase, the rate of new cells being added to the ____ population has slowed down stationary
The process designated high temperature, short time is associated with pasteurization
What disinfectant is compatible with human tissues? antiseptic
What term indicates an agent that inhibits bacterial growth? bacteriostatic
A substance used to disinfect human tissues is called an antiseptic
What concentration of ethyl alcohol would be the most effective disinfectant? 75%
What molecule would be the best antigen? proteins
Plasma cells are ______________ cells antibody producing
Mercurochrome is an antiseptic
The integration of phage DNA into the bacterial chromosome occurs because of ____________ sequence in the virus and the host. identical nucleotide
A complete infective virus particle is called a bacteriophage
A bacteriophage after it becomes integrated into its host's chromosome is called a prophage
A complete, infectious virus particle is called a virion
In addition to maintaining the prophage in an integrated state, the repressor proteins also prevents infection of the host by the same type of virus
An enzyme located in the tail of some phages that digests a small hole in the bacterial cell wall is lysozyme
In specialized transduction, the only genes that can be transduced are those located near the site of integration of the phage DNA
A bacterial cell carrying a prophage is called a lysogen
What will interfere with normal ciliary action of the respiratory epithelium and make an individual more susceptible to infection viral infection
The rash of scarlet fever is caused by bacteria in the skin
New tests for strep throat that are rapid and can be performed in a physicians office rely on Streptococcus pyogene antigens in the throat
Depletion of _____ enhances toxin synthesis in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. iron
A toxoid is an inactivated toxin
________ , a consequence of strep throat infections, is actually caused by immune complexes in the kidneys acute glomerulonephritis
The fundamental unit of all living matter is cell
Heat resistant form of bacteria is known as an endospore
Cells that have a membrane surrounding their genetic material are known as eukaryotic
Heat resistant, non dividing forms of bacteria are called endospores
Cells that can be seen only with the help of a microscope are called microorganisms
Leeuwenhook discoveries were significant because he carefully recorded and reported his results
The name for the group of primitive bacteria is the archaebacteria
As demonstrated by Tydall, infusions which were sterilized by boiling in 5 minutes could not be sterilized in 5 minutes when what materials were in the laboratory? hay, due to endospores
Pasteur experiments demonstrated that microorganisms grown in contaminated flasks were indistinguishable from those that were found in air
What is the correct way to represent the scientific name for a specific bacterium? Bacillus cereus (Caps, italics)
We cannot describe viruses as prokaryotes or eukaryotes because viruses are not cellular
The original distinction between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells was made on the basis of the absence or presence of nuclear membrane
The process by which living microorganisms are used to help clean up the environment is called bioremediation
The system developed by Linnaeus for naming organisms is known as what type of system of nomenclature? Binomial
What theory states that all organisms are composed of cells and that cells are the fundamental units of life? cell theory
Tyndall and Cohn discovered a heat resistant form of bacteria known as endospores
What term best describes the cleaning and disinfection of operating rooms and patient rooms after use? terminal cleaning
Alcohols kill vegetative bacteria and fungi by coagulating essential proteins
What phase of microbial growth would be most susceptible to the killing action of microbial agents? exponential phase (log phase)
Chlorox and ethyl alcohol are examples of disinfectants
The process of controlled heating of substances at temperatures below boiling which is directed toward the elimination of specific pathogens is called pasteurization
Pasteurization was developed to control spoilage microorganisms in wine
A tincture is a solution of alcohol
What is the causative agent of Lyme disease Borrelia burgdoferi
In lysogenic conversion, the genes that code for the toxins are phage genes
Created by: excbchic