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EMS Chapter7 Pharmac

Emergency Care & Transp. 10th Edition 2011 Jones & Bartlett

TermDefinition
absorption The process by which medications travel through body tissues until they reach the bloodstream.
action The therapeutic effect of a medication on the body.
activated charcoal An oral medication that binds and adsorbs ingested toxins in the gastrointestinal tract for treatment of some poisonings and medication overdoses. Charcoal is ground into a very fine powder that provides the greatest possible surface area for binding medi
adsorption The process of binding or sticking to a surface.
Aagonist A medication that causes stimulation of receptors.
antagonist A medication that binds to a receptor and blocks other medications.
aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid or ASA) A medication that is an antipyretic (reduces fever), analgesic (reduces pain), anti-inflammatory (reduces inflammation), and potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation (clumping).
contraindications Conditions that make a particular medication or treatment inappropriate; for example, a condition in which a medication should not be given because it would not help or may actually harm a patient.
dose The amount of medication given on the basis of the patient's size and age.
EMT-administered medication When the EMT directly administers the medication to the patient.
enteral medications
Medications that enter the body through the digestive system.
epinephrine
A substance produced by the body (commonly called adrenaline), and a drug produced by pharmaceutical companies that increases pulse rate and blood pressure; the drug of choice for an anaphylactic reaction.
gel
A semiliquid substance that is administered orally in capsule form or through plastic tubes.
generic name
The original chemical name of a medication (in contrast with one of its "trade names"); the name is not capitalized.
hypoglycemia
A condition characterized by a low blood glucose level.
indications
The therapeutic uses for a specific medication.
inhalation
Breathing into the lungs; a medication delivery route.
intended effect
The effect that a medication is expected to have on the body.
intramuscular (IM) injection
An injection into a muscle; a medication delivery route.
intranasal (IN)
A delivery route in which a medication is pushed through a specialized atomizer device called a mucosal atomizer device (MAD) into the naris.
intraosseous (IO)
Into the bone; a medication delivery route.
intravenous (IV) injection
An injection directly into a vein; a medication delivery route.
medication
A chemical substance that is used to treat or prevent disease or relieve pain.
metered-dose inhaler (MDI)
A miniature spray canister used to direct medications through the mouth and into the lungs.
mucosal atomizer device (MAD)
A device that is used to change a liquid medication into a spray and push it into a nostril.
nitroglycerin
A medication that increases cardiac perfusion by causing arteries to dilate; you may be allowed to help the patient self-administer the medication.
oral
By mouth; a medication delivery route.
oral glucose
A simple sugar that is readily absorbed by the bloodstream; it is carried on the EMS unit.
over-the-counter (OTC) medications
Medications that may be purchased directly by a patient without a prescription.
oxygen
A gas that all cells need for metabolism; the heart and brain, especially, cannot function without oxygen.
parenteral medications
Medications that enter the body by a route other than the digestive tract, skin, or mucous membranes.
patient-assisted medication
When the EMT assists the patient with the administration of his or her own medication.
peer-assisted medication
When the EMT adminsters medication to him or herself or to a partner.
per os (PO)
Through the mouth; a medication delivery route; same as oral.
per rectum (PR)
Through the rectum; a medication delivery route.
pharmacodynamics
The process by which a medication works on the body.
pharmacology
The study of the properties and effects of medications.
polypharmacy
The simultaneous use of multiple medications by a patient as typically seen in elderly people.
prescription medications
Medications that are distributed to patients only by pharmacists according to a physician's order.
side effects
Any effects of a medication other than the desired ones.
solution
A liquid mixture that cannot be separated by filtering or allowing the mixture to stand.
subcutaneous (SC) injection
Injection into the tissue between the skin and muscle; a medication delivery route.
sublingual (SL)
Under the tongue; a medication delivery route.
suspension
A mixture of ground particles that are distributed evenly throughout a liquid but do not dissolve.
topical medications
Lotions, creams, and ointments that are applied to the surface of the skin and affect only that area; a medication delivery route.
trade name
The brand name that a manufacturer gives a medication; the name is capitalized.
transcutaneous (transdermal)
Through the skin; a medication delivery route.
unintended effect
Actions that are undesirable but pose little risk to the patient.
untoward effects
Actions that can be harmful to the patient
Created by: Liwa91