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7th Unit 1b

Cell structure and Function Key Terms

TermDefinition
Cell theory A principle that describes the cell as the fundamental unit of all living organisms. A principle that describes the properties of an organism as the sum of the properties of its component cells.
Cell The smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent functioning, consisting of one or more nuclei, cytoplasm, and various organelles, all surrounded by a semipermeable cell membrane.
Cancer Abnormal cell growth caused by uncontrolled cell division.
Cell membrane The semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell. It is also called the plasma membrane.
Cell wall The rigid outermost cell layer found in plants and certain algae, bacteria, and fungi but characteristically absent from animal cells.
Centrioles One of two cylindrical cellular structures that are composed of nine triplet microtubules and form the asters during mitosis.
Chloroplasts A chlorophyll-containing plastid found in algal and green plant cells.
Cytoplasm The clear gel-like fluid found outside the nucleus of a cell.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) A nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the cell and is capable of self-replication and synthesis of RNA.
Endoplasmic reticulum A membrane network within the cytoplasm of cells involved in the synthesis, modification, and transport of cellular materials.
Food vacuole A vesicle in which water, nutrients, food, and other materials are stored.
Golgi complex A complex of parallel, flattened sacs, vesicles, and vacuoles that lies adjacent to the nucleus of a cell and is concerned with the formation of secretions within the cell. Also called Golgi apparatus.
Lysosomes Single, membrane-bound sacs that contain digestive enzymes.
Mitochondria A spherical or elongated organelle in the cytoplasm of nearly all eukaryotic cells, containing enzymes important for cell metabolism, including those responsible for the conversion of food to usable energy.
Nucleus A large, membrane-bound, usually spherical protoplasmic structure within a living cell, containing the cell's hereditary material and controlling its metabolism, growth, and reproduction.
Nucleolus A small, typically round granular body composed of protein and RNA in the nucleus of a cell. It is usually associated with a specific chromosomal site and involved in ribosomal RNA synthesis and the formation of ribosomes.
Organelles A differentiated structure within a cell, such as a mitochondrion, vacuole, or chloroplast. It performs a specific function.
Ribosome Small particles, present in large numbers in every living cell, whose function is to convert stored genetic information into protein molecules.
Nutrients A source of nourishment, especially a nourishing ingredient in a food.
Interphase The phase in the life cycle of a cell wherein the cell grows in size, replicates its DNA, and prepares for cell division
Prophase In eukaryotic cells, the chromosomes condense and the nuclear membrane begins to disappear.
Metaphase In eukaryotic cells, the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.
Anaphase In eukaryotic cells, the spindle fibers pull the sister chromatids to opposite ends of the cell.
Telophase In eukaryotic cells, a nuclear membrane begins to form around each of the two new daughter cells.
Cytokinesis The splitting of the cytoplasm.
Created by: darrin_evans