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position of the heart in the inferior mediastinum, the medial section of the thoracic cavity, between the lungs. Above the diaphragm ad below the second rib
pulmonary circulation right ventricle of heart sends deoxygenated blood through the pulmonary semilunar valve to pulmonary arteries, to the lungs. Oxygenated blood goes through pulmonary veins to left atrium of heart, then to the left ventricle
another name for AV (atrioventricular) valve Right: tricuspid value. Left: bicuspid valve
function of pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
what is the interventricular septum it is the wall that divides the heart - lies between the left and right ventricles
where is the tricuspid valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
deoxygenated blood returns to the heart through what? inferior and superior vena cava
where is the S.A. node (pacemaker) in the heart? at the top of the right atrium
what is angina? severe, suffocating pain caused by a brief lack of oxygen to the heart muscle
calculate cardiac output (CO) amount of blood pumped out by each side of the heart. HR = heart rate (beats per min.). SV = stroke volume (Vol. of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each heart beat). CO = HR X SV. eg. 75 beats/min X 70 ml/beat = 5250 ml/min = 5.25 L/min
properties of veins vessel that carries blood away from the tissue towards the heart. Usually carry deoxy, but they carry oxy from the lungs. Veins have thinner walls, but bigger lumens, than arteries. Larger veins have valves to prevent the back flow of blood.
what is stroke volume amount of blood pumped in one minute from each side of the heart
composition of lymph plasma leaks out of vessels and becomes interstitial / excess tissue fluid, which is lymph. Contains proteins, cell debris, bacteria and viruses with the fluid.
circulation of lymph, and how it returns to the heart Lymph capillaries collect lymph, send it to lymph collecting vessels (with valves). Goes via lymph nodes (debris removed, lymph is checked by immune system), right side to right lymphatic duct and rest goes to thoracic duct, to subclavian veins, to heart
mechanisms of circulation of the lymph milking action of skeletal muscles and pressure changes in theorize during breathing "pumps" it. Smooth muscle walls if large lymphatics contract to "pump" it long.
inputs and outputs of lymph nodes input: Afferent lymphatic vessels (many) output: Efferent lymphatic vessels (few)
spleen functions Filters blood to remove bacteria, viruses and other debris. Destroys worn-out red blood cells and returns some of their breakdown products to the liver. Stores platelets Acts as a blood reservoir Produces lyphocytes
tonsils functions Trap and remove bacteria and other foreign pathogens entering the throat.
thymus functions functions at peak levels during youth. produces hormones (thymosin) that program the lymphocytes to protect the body programming allows them to distinguish own cells from foreign substances.
where are the tonsils 2 masses of lymphoid tissue that ring around the pharynx (throat) and are found in the mucosa.
what is malt? A collection of small lymph tissues: Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue. Includes appendix, tonsils and Peyer's patches (in intestines).
what is "components of first line of defense"? 1. Skin 2. Mucus membranes 3. Secretions of skin and mucous membranes.
what is diapedesis? The passage / squeezing of blood cells (including WBC) through vessels into the tissues.
What is positive chemotaxis? When neutrophils gather at the site of tissue injury (drawn by the gradient of inflammatory chemicals). Thy then begin devouring foreign substances within an hour.
What is the temperature thermostat organ in our body? part of the brain - hypothalamus Normal temp 37 C = 98.6F.
what is the science of immunity called? immunology
what is antigen? Any substance that is recognized as foreign and activates the immune system. Can include toxins, foreign proteins or bacteria.
what is immuno-competence? the ability of the body's immune cells to recognize (by binding) specific antigens. It reflects the presence of palm membrane bound receptors.
Where are B and T lymphocytes programmed? T cells are programmed in the thymus. B cells are programmed in the bone marrow.
What are vaccines for? They provide antigens that allow the B cells to produce antibodies against them, so you can develop active immunity.
How to treat allergies? With anti-allergy drugs that contain antihistamines, which act against the histamines. The histamines cause the energy signs (runny nose etc.)
Where do gas exchanges occur? In the respiratory zone: it includes respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli.
Role of mucus...? Trap unwanted things. Keeps the free surface of membranes moist.
Where are nasal sinuses? They surround the nasal cavity and are in the sphenoidal, ethmoid and maxillary bones.
What is the superior portion of the Pharynx ? (Nasopharynx)
How is mucus removed from the trachea? The cilia, which beat in the opposite direction of the incoming air, propel mucus (loaded with dust and bacteria) away from the lungs towards the throat, where it can be swallowed or spat out.
Functions of the Larynx? Also know as the "voice" box, routes air and food to the proper channels and plays a role in speech.
4 events of Respiration... 1. Pulmonary ventilation (breathing), 2. External respiration (between blood and exterior via alveoli), 3. Respiratory gas transport, 4. Internal respiration (between blood and internal tissues).
How does the exchange of gases happen? Gas exchanges occur according to the laws of diffusion. i.e movement occurs towards the area of lower concentration of the diffusing substance. Diffusion from the alveolar air into the pulmonary capillary blood, and from the pulmonary capillaries.
Breathing equals Pulmonary ventilation / simple diffusion.
Surfactant...tell me about it. Lipid (fat) molecule) which coats the alveolar surfaces. Reduces surface tension in the Alveoli, so that they do not collapse between each breath. Surfactant is produced by cuboidal cells.
What are the non-respiratory air movements and function? Cough: to clear the lower respiratory passageways. Sneeze: to clear upper respiratory passages. Crying: Emotionally induced mechanism. Laughing: Emotionally induced mechanism. Hiccups: caused by spasms of the diaphragm Yawn: Ventilates all alveoli.
What are the respiratory centers in the brain? RC is located in the Medulla Oblongata and pons, which is part of the brain stem.
What is the respiratory rate in adults? 12-18 breaths per minute.
Created by: redstreak23