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Biology Unit 1

words i am not familiar with

TermDefinition
Anaphase the stage of mitosis or meiosis when chromosomes are split and the sister chromatids move to opposite poles of the cell.
Catalyst a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change.
Cell Theory a scientific theory which describes the properties of cells. These cells are the basic unit of structure in all organisms and also the basic unit of reproduction.
Chromatin a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein and RNA.
Cilia an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Activation Energy the minimum energy that must be input to a chemical system with potential reactants to cause a chemical reaction.
Benedict's Solution A solution of sodium citrate, sodium carbonate, and copper sulfate that changes from blue to yellow or red in the presence of reducing sugars, such as glucose.
Biuret Reagent an aqueous solution of biuret (allophanamide) treated with cupric sulfate and sodium hydroxide. In the presence of protein, this blue solution will change color to pink-purple.
Compound Light Microscope an optical instrument for forming magnified images of small objects, consisting of an objective lens with a very short focal length and an eyepiece with a longer focal length, both lenses mounted in the same tube.
Cytokinesis the physical process of cell division, which divides the cytoplasm of a parental cell into two daughter cells.
Exocytosis a process in which an intracellular vesicle (membrane bounded sphere) moves to the plasma membrane and subsequent fusion of the vesicular membrane and plasma membrane ensues.
Flagella organelles defined by function rather than structure.
Fluid Mosaic Model A model that describes the structure of cell membranes. In this model, a flexible layer made of lipid molecules is interspersed with large protein molecules that act as channels through which other molecules enter and leave the cell.
Golgi Apparatus an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
Electron Microscope a type of microscope that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the specimen. It is capable of much higher magnifications and has a greater resolving power than a light microscope, allowing it to see much smaller objects in finer detail.
Isomer molecules with the same chemical formula but different chemical structures.
Polar having electrical or magnetic polarity.
Hydrogen Bond the electrostatic attraction between polar molecules that occurs when a hydrogen (H) atom bound to a highly electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O) or fluorine (F) experiences attraction to some other nearby highly electronegative atom.
Hypertonic having a higher osmotic pressure than a particular fluid, typically a body fluid or intracellular fluid.
Hypotonic having a lower osmotic pressure than a particular fluid, typically a body fluid or intracellular fluid
Interphase the phase of the cell cycle in which the cell spends and performs the majority of its time. Then, in preparation for cellular division, it increases in size.
Isotonic denoting or relating to a solution having the same osmotic pressure as some other solution, especially one in a cell or a body fluid.
Lysosome an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane.
Macromolecules a molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a protein, nucleic acid, or synthetic polymer.
Microfilament a small rodlike structure, about 4–7 nanometers in diameter, present in numbers in the cytoplasm of many eukaryotic cells
Microtubule a microscopic tubular structure present in numbers in the cytoplasm of cells, sometimes aggregating to form more complex structures.
Nucleolus a small dense spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell during interphase.
Polymer a substance that has a molecular structure consisting chiefly or entirely of a large number of similar units bonded together
Substrate the surface or material on or from which an organism lives, grows, or obtains its nourishment. the substance on which an enzyme acts.
Plasma Membrane a microscopic membrane of lipids and proteins that forms the external boundary of the cytoplasm of a cell or encloses a vacuole, and that regulates the passage of molecules in and out of the cytoplasm.
Prokaryote a microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles.
RNA a polymeric molecule. It is implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes
Selective Permeability one that allows certain molecules or ions to pass through it by means of active or passive transport.
Telophase the final phase of cell division, between anaphase and interphase, in which the chromatids or chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed.
Transport Protein a protein that serves the function of moving other materials within an organism.
Vacuole storage bubbles found in cells. They are found in both animal and plant cells but are much larger in plant cells.
Created by: amaya.k