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Cardiacvascul System

all about the heart, dxs, iii, diseases

carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart arteries
carry oxygen-poor blood back to your heart veins
oxygen-rich blood are colored red
oxygen-poor blood are colored blue
yellowish liquid that is 90% water plasma
is actually a tissue, about 80% water and 20% solid blood
3 main types of blood platelets, RBC, WBC
help the blood to clot platelets or thrombocytes
life span of RBC 120 days
cells that ward off infection WBC
what blood contains hormones, fats, carbohydrates, proteins, gases
organ that filters and cleans blood kidney
different blood types A, B, AB, O
universal donor type O
natural pacemaker SA node
main artery of systemic circulation aorta
supplies blood to felt side of heart circumflex artery
regulates blood flow between right atrium and right ventricle tricuspid valve
controls blood flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary arteries pulmonary valve
allows oxygen rich blood to pass from left atrium to left ventricle mitral valve
opens the way for oxygen rich blood to pass from left ventricle into the aorta aortic valve
channels that carry blood to or from all tissues blood vessels
two circulatory circuits pulmonary & systemic circulation
where oxygenation & carbon dioxide removal occur lungs
where food products enter from the digestive organs portal vein
what does lymphatic system consists of? lymph/interstitial fluid, lymphatics, lymph nodes, bone marrow, liver, spleen, thymus
bone marrow life span of platelets 10 days
function of platelets blood clotting
function of lymphocytes immunity
function of T-cells attack virus containing cells
function of B-cells produce antibodies
function of neutrophil phagocytosis
functions of plasma maintenance of pH level near 7.4; transport of large molecules; immunity; blood clotting
controls vessel size of arteries sympathetic nervous system
artery that supplies the brain & skull carotid artery
artery that supplies the abdomen mesenteric (intestines), celiac (stomach, liver, spleen), renal (kidney), iliac (pelvis)
artery that supplies the upper extremity brachial/axillary (upper arm), radial & ulnar (forearm & hand),borsal carpal (fingers)
artery that supplies the lower extremity femoral (thighs), popliteal (leg), dorsal pedis & posterior tibial (foot)
point of exchange between the blood and surrounding tissues capillaries
vessels that collect blood from all body parts; largest veins superior and inferior vena cava
3 layers of blood vessels intima, media, adventitia
blood vessel layer that expands when pressure surges then snaps back to push blood forward when the heart rests smooth muscle media
the only artery that carries oxygen poor blood pulmonary artery
normal heart rate 60-100 beats
sound of heart contracting "lub-dub"
one cardiac cycle consists of: atrial contraction & relaxation, ventricular contraction &relaxation, and a short pause
part where there is contraction of the heart muscle in the ventricles systole
part where there is relaxation of the ventricular heart muscles diastole
increased pressure on the arteries due to the contraction of the ventricles systolic pressure
decreased pressure due to the relaxation of the ventricles diastolic pressure
part of the brain that regulates blood pressurea and breathing medulla
machine that shows electrical activity of the heart ECG
represents atrial depolarization P wave
represents depolarization at the Bundle of His Q wave
represents the main spread of depolarization from inside out through the base of the ventricles R wave
shows the subsequent depolarization of the rest of the ventricles upwards from base S wave
represents repolarizartion of the myocardium after systole is complete T wave
types of alveolar artery superior & inferior
2 parts of superior alveolar artery anterior & posterior
measures blood pressure throughout the day and night; believed to be able to reduce the white coat HPN ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM)
medical imagaing technique to visualize the inside (lumen) of blodd vessels & organs of the body; traditionally done by injecting radiopaque contrast agent angiography or arteriography
a medical specialty which studies diseases of circulatory system and of lymphatic system angiology
stimulates the release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex causing blood vessels to constrict and increase blood pressure up angiotensin
is a renin substrate; an α-2-globulin released by the liver angiotensinogen
formed by the action of renin on angiotensinogen; precursor to angiotensin 2 angiotensin 1
found predominantly in the capillaries of the lungs ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme)
medications that decrease the rate of angiotensin 2 production; major drug against HPN ACE inhibitor
a hormone that causes the kidneys to retain sodium and lose potassium aldosterone
the ratio of the blood pressure in the lower legs to the BP in the arms ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI)
chemoreceptors responsible for sensing changes in blood gases glomus cells (located in carotid & aortic bodies; helps regulate breathing)
other names of aortic sinuses sinus of Valsalva; sinus of Morgagni; Petit's sinus
a result of an aortic valve that fails to open fully thereby obstructing blood flow out from the heart aortic stenosis
a result of incompetent aortic valve and blood flows passively back to the heart in the wrong direction aortic insufficiency/aortic regurgitation
is the lowest superficial part of the heart and is directed downward, forward, to the left and is overlapped by the left lung and pleura apex of the heart
the primary site of vascular resistance arteriole
is an arteriole which bypasses capillary circulation metarterioles
are veins that connect the pelvic veins to the internal vertebral venous plexus & allows metastasis of cancer from pelvic organs to vertebral column Batson's veins
a cardiac shunt which allows blood to flow freely between the right and left heart bidirectional shunt
refers to the force exerted by the circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels blood pressure (arterial pressure)
most critical nutrient carried by the blood hemoglobin (oxygen)
is the constriction of blood vessels vasoconstriction
is part of the blood-ocular barrier that consists of cells that are joined tightly together to prevent certain substances from entering the tissue of the retina blood-retinal barrier or BRB
eye damage that is a result of diabetes & is related to the breakdown of blood retinal barrier diabetic retinopathy
is the localized reduction of blood flow to the brain or parts of the brain due to arterial obstruction or systemic hyperfusion brain ischemia
a condition where a blood clot has occured & occluded a cerebral vessel focal brain ischemia
a condition when blood ceases to flow or the blood flow to the brain decreases drastically global brain ischemia
the smallest body of blood vessels capillaries
3 types of capillaries continuous; fenestrated; sinusoidal or discontinuous
type of capillaries that have a sealed endothelium & only allow small molecules to diffuse continuous capillaries
are capillaries that have pores in the endothelial cells that are spanned by a diaphragm of radially oreiented fibrils & allow molecules & limited amounts of protein to diffuse fenestrated capillaries
are fenestrated capillaries that have larger openings in the endothelium to allow RBC & serum CHONs to enter sinusoidal or discontinuous capillaries
a rate at which blood refills empty capillaries capillary refill
is a common measure of dehydration & peripheral perfusion capillary refill time/nail blanch test
refers to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity cardiorespiratory fitness
responsible for the change of heart rate cardiovascular centre (medulla)
is a hiatus in the diaphragm of humans through which passes the inferior vena cava at the level of the 8th thoracic vertebra caval opening
is the blood supply to the brain in a given time cerebral blood flow
is a layer of capillaries that is immediately adjacent to Bruch's membrane in the choroid choriocapillaries
drugs that alter heart rate chronotropic drugs * positive -- increase HR * negative -- decrease HR
a cv test performed by immersing the hand into an ice water container & measuring the changes in BP & HR; clinically indicate vascular response @ pulse excitability cold pressor
is often a result of anastomoses -- branches formed between adjacent blood vessels collateral circulation
a nervous system response to severe cerebral ischemia Cushing reflex
are blood supply of a tooth dental canaliculi or dentinal tubules
is a branch of the splenic artery that supplies pancreas dorsal pancreatic artery
true or false: all animals with lungs have a double circulatory system true (because it has two loops - one from the heart to the lungs & one from the heart to rest of the body)
3 main types of valves bicuspid, tricuspid, 2 semilunar valves
an agent that affects the conduction velocity of the AV node & subsequently the rate of electrical impulses in the heart dromotropic agents
is the volume of arterial blood (vascular extracellular fluid) effectively perfusing the tissue effective circulating volume (ECV)
a layer of thin cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels; helps in reducing turbulence flow of the blood endothelium
a compound secreted by endothelial cells w/c leads to nitic oxide & prostacyclin independent vasodilation by relaxation of vascular smooth muscle endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)
refers to the circulation of bile from the liver to the small intestine then back to the liver enterohepatic circulation
system that directs nutrient rich blood from the intestines to the liver hepatic portal system
when a cholesterol is metabolized, it results to: cholic acid & chenodeoxycholic acid
an adaptive mechanism that causes blood to pass the lung without being oxygenated Euler-Liljestrand mechanism
is an excessive rise in blood pressure during exercise exercise hypertension
is the soft tissue component of the connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber fascia
3 layers of fascia superficial, deep, visceral
serves as a storage of fat & water, as a passageway for lymph, nerve, & blood vessels, as a protective padding to cushion & insulate superficial fascia
is the dense fibrous connective tissue that interpenetrates & surrounds the muscles, bones, nerves, & blood vessesl of body deep fascia
this suspends the organs within their cavities & wraps them in layers of connective tissue membranes; is a double layer fascia visceral fascia (parietal [outer] & visceral [inner])
specialized name for the visceral fascia found in the brain meninges
specialized name for the visceral fascia found in the heart pericardia
specialized name for the visceral fascia found in the lungs pleura
composed of macrophage white blood cells and is the term generally given to the earliest stage of atheroma fatty streak
are cells in an atheroma derived from both macrophages & smooth muscle cells w/c have accumulated LDL by endocytosis foam cells
in fetal heart, this allows blood to enter the left atrium from the right atrium foramen ovale or ostium secundum of Born
an embryonic remnant of the foramen ovale w/c commonly closes after birth fossa ovalis
failure of the foramen ovale of the heart to close patent foramen ovale
is the system of blood vessels that links the hypothalamus & the ant. pituitary; allows endocrine communication bet. two structures hypophyseal portal system (hypotahalmo-hypophyseal portal system)
is an artery in the pelvis that supplies the lower part of the bladder inferior vesical
an agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions inotropics (positive [increases strength] & negative [decreases strenght])
is the wall of tissue that separates the right and left atria of the ehart interatrial septum
is the stout wall separating the lower chambers of the heart from one another interventricular septum or ventricular septum
is smooth muscle in the center of arteries that paradoxically keep the artery patent intimal cushion
three ways that blood vessels are known to be formed intussusception, angiogenesis, vasculogenesis
is the process whereby a new blood vessel is created by the splitting of an existing blood vessel in two intussusception
a restriction in blood supply with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue ischemia
term denoting a shortage of oxygen hypoxia
where Na+ and water is reabsorbed distal convoluted tubule
the part that senses the decrease in GFR and Na+ levels macula densa
the cells taht senses the decrease in blood pressure juxtaglomerular cells
a term used to describe myocardial relaxation lusitropy
when this is increased, it promotes positive lusitropy & enables the heart to relax more rapidly catecholamine
are tiny thin-walled blood vessel that are closed at one end & are located in spaces bet. cells throughout the body except the cns lymph capillaries
3 common macrovascular diseases coronary (heart), cerebrovascular (brain), peripheral vascular disease (limbs)
a mechanism of how arteries & arterioles react to an increase or decrease of BP to keep the blood flow within the blood vessel constant myogenic mechanism
is the rate of blood filtration by the nephron glomeruclar filtration rate
a pericardial sinus that is located between the limbs of the inverted U of the venous mesocardium lies behind the left atrium oblique sinus
the sinus that forms in the pericardial cavity where the dorso-mesentary pericardium reside transverse sinus
a condition wherein the truncus arteriosus is not properly divided into pulmonary artery & aorta persistent truncus arteriosus
occurs when a capillary bed drains into another capillary bed through veins portal venous system
is the coexistence of portal hypertension & pulmonary hypertension portopulmonary hypertension
is a band of smooth muscle that adjusts the blood flow into each capillary precapillary sphincter
is a catheter that measures pulmonary capillary wedge pressure Swan-Ganz catheter
it is the pressure measured in a pulmonary artery after occlusion of that arery pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (pcwp)
is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure & water (fluid) balance renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
this stimulates the production of angiotensin renin
is made in the hypothalamus & is released from the post. pituitary gland to stimulate reabsorption of water in the kidneys vasopressin
functions in the destruction of redundant RBC & hold a reservoir of blood spleen
refers to an angiosarcoma arising from chronic lymphedema Stewart-Treves syndrome
largest branch of the axillary artery subscapular artery
Created by: zhilan