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ES 06-08 MEGA-Stack

Earth's Layers, Plate Tectonics, Volcanoes, Earthquakes

deepest hole ever dug by man, 7.5 miles deep, in Russia Kola Superdeep Borehole
thinnest, least dense upper layer of Earth that makes up 1% of Earth's mass crust
top two elements in Earth's crust #1. oxygen (46%) 2. silicon (28%)
igneous rock type that is most common in continental crust granite
igneous rock type that is most common in oceanic crust basalt
one of the pieces of Earth's crust that float around, changing position over time tectonic plate
largest layer of Earth's crust (~80% of Earth's volumer), its a molten slush that contains the Asthenosphere and part of the Lithosphere mantle
rotating/swirling movement in Earth's mantle that causes the surface plates to shift position over time convection current
brittle, rocky ('crunchy') layer of Earth, containing the crust and the upper part of the mantle lithosphere
the rise and fall of convection currents in Earth's mantle occur because of differences in this property caused by temperature differences and different depths density
'plastic' layer of the upper mantle upon which the lithosphere floats and shifts asthenosphere
two most common elements in Earth's core iron nickel
liquid metal layer of Earth whose motions are (probably) responsible for Earth's magnetic field outer core
Earth's solid rotating center make of Fe/Ni, density 13, pressure 2 million times greater than surface, temperatures over 10,000° F inner core
mostly iron-rich basalt, this sublayer is 7 km thick on average and formed at mid-ocean ridges oceanic crust
mostly silicate-rich granite, this sublayer is 35 km thick on average, may be up to 4 billion years old, and is only one that contains fossils continental crust
boundary between Earth's crust and mantle discovered by the way it affected seismic (earthquake) waves Mohorovicic discontinuity (Moho)
theory that earth's continents were once a single landmass Continental Drift
person who proposed the theory of continental drift Wegener
single landmass of joined continents that existed around 250 mya Pangaea
jigsaw fit, similar mountains and fossils on different coastlines, etc evidence in support of continental drift
tropical fern fossil found on what are now diverse continents that suggested they all had a similar climate in the past Glossopteris
any one of the three fossil animals whose wide distribution was cited as evidence of the continents having been connected in the past Cynognathus Lystrosaurus Mesosaurus
fossil remains of tropic ferns suggest this location on earth for Pangaea near equator
evidence found in Antarctica that suggests it was once located in a tropical climate coal beds
deposits from these in parts of Africa, India, Australia and South America suggest these areas were once located near the south pole glaciers
did not explain what force could have pushed the continents apart nor how they could move through earth's (solid) surface why continental drift was rejected at first
device which can detect small changes in magnetic fields magnetometer
uses reflection of sound waves to measure depth of the ocean floor sonar
world's longest mountain range(s) found beneath earth's waters mid-ocean ridges
very low places in earth's oceanic crust where subduction pulls one plate down and drags the edge of the other with it deep sea trenches
name of deepest ocean trench Mariana
age of oceanic crust compared to continental younger (by a lot)
thickness of sediments on ocean floor compared to on land thinner
study of the history of earth's magnetic field paleomagnetism
describes the process of earth's N-S field changing directions magnetic reversal
current orientation of earth's magnetic field normal polarity
orientation of earth's magnetic field opposite of today's directon reverse polarity
mineral in oceanic crust that records direction of earth's magnetic field at the time of its solidification from magma magnetite
a line on a map that shows points of the same age isochron
process by which new oceanic crust is formed at mid-ocean ridges sea floor spreading
describes rising of magma to fill in gap as sea floor spreads upwelling
theory that earth's lithosphere is broken into pieces that move around plate tectonics
plate boundary that creates new ocean floor or rift valleys divergent
plate boundary that destroys ocean floors or creates folded mountains convergent
process that occurs when oceanic crust is pulled under other oceanic or continental crust at a convergent boundary subduction
oceanic-oceanic convergence leads to a trench and this series of structures rising from the seafloor below (ex: Mariana or Aleutians) volcanic island arc
oceanic-continental convergence leads to subduction, a trench, and lots of these along the coastline of the continent (ex: in Andes along coast of Chile/Peru) volcanoes
continental-continental convergence leads to these forming since neither can subduct below the other (ex: Himalayas) folded mountains
plate boundary where one side slides past the other transform (slip-strike)
world's most famous transform plate boundary in California San Andreas
any one of the 3 causes of plate motion as described in notes convection in mantle, ridge push, slab pull
plate boundary LEAST likely to be associated with a volcano transform (slip strike)
to nearest 10, how many volcanoes are erupting at any moment? 20
describes all processes that emit magma, hot fluids, ash and gases volcanism
most land based volcanoes occur along this type of plate boundary convergent
common name for the Circum-Pacific volcano belt Ring of Fire
2/3 of all volcanism occurs underwater along this plate boundary type mid-ocean ridge (oceanic-oceanic divergent)
new ocean floor is often made of this lumpy lava extrusion pillow lava
located far from a plate boundary, it is an area where very hot magma rises and melts through the crust, often forming a chain of volcanoes hot spot
world's most active volcano, and location Kilauea, Hawaii
when a hot spot occurs under a continent, fissure volcanoes often produce this extensive area of extruded, dark lava flood basalt
location of the Daccan Traps flood basalt which may have affected global climate 65 mya India
reservoir of molten rock that supplies a volcano magma chamber
tubelike passage that transports magma through a volcano to the surface conduit
opening that lets lava emerge from a volcano vent
small depression that typically surrounds the vent of a volcano crater
very large depression around a volcano vent formed if a magma chamber empties and collapses in on itself caldera
the mountain-like structure formed by a volcano over time cone
largest volcano type, gently sloping, often circular, nonexplosive formation from fairly fluid lava (ex: Hawaiian volcanoes) shield volcano
generally a smaller, steep-sided volcano formed from pyroclasts (i.e. 'crunchy', often produced during explosive eruptions...most common cone type cinder cone
scoria, ash, cinders...any small pieces of lava produced by a volcano pyroclasts
formed from alternating layers of ash and hardened lava, this medium to large volcano type often is a cone with concave sides stratovolcano (composite cone)
stratovolcano in Washington state that erupted in 1980, and included the largest land slide in recorded history Mount St. Helens
generic name for any intrusive igneous rock body pluton
granite pluton that is both huge and irregularly shaped (Sierra Nevada is one example) batholith
lens-shaped magma pluton that forms under bowed up rock layers laccolith
an intrusive pluton that may be thin or thick and runs parallel to existing rock layers sill
an intrusive pluton that may be thin or thick and runs perpendicular to existing rock layers dike
any of the forces that act on rock along a plate boundary causing deformation stress
stress that squeezes rock along a fault compression
stress that tries to pull rock apart along a fault tension
stress that tries to twist rock along a fault shear
in general, any deformation that occurs in rock in response to stress along a fault strain
describes strain (deformation) in rock which disappears if stress acting on the rock is reduced elastic deformation
describes strain (deformation) in rock which permanently distorts it when stress exceeds the elastic limit plastic deformation
describes what happens to rock when the stress acting on it exceeds rock strength failure (breakage)
any fracture in earth's crust along which movement may occur fault
describes a fault that results in one side dropping lower as tension (pulling) forces act on the fault normal fault
describes a fault that results in one side moving upward as compression (squeezing) forces act on the fault reverse fault
describes a fault along which shear (twisting) forces cause horizontal movement slip-strike fault
synonym for 'earthquake waves' seismic waves
fastest seismic waves that cause earth to vibrate parallel to the direction of the wave Primary (P) waves
seismic waves that cause earth to vibrate perpendicular to the direction of the wave and only travel through solids Secondary (S) waves
seismic waves that cause most of the damage during earthquakes, moving along the top of the ground and causing particles to move in circles surface waves
exact origin of an earthquake, often well below the surface focus
area on surface of earth directly above location of earthquake origin epicenter
instrument that detects seismic waves seismometer (seismograph)
paper or data record of waves produced by earthquake seismogram
graph showing arrival time for S and P waves for distances travel-time curve
number of seismometer stations whose seismograms are required to find location of an epicenter three (3)
process of locating an epicenter using the data from three seismometer stations triangulation
S waves do not move through this layer of earth, indicating that it must be liquid outer core
this scale numerically rates the energy of seismic waves (based on size of the largest) Richter scale
height of a wave (earthquake or otherwise) amplitude
energy of seismic waves as rated by the Richter scale magnitude
how much greater is the amplitude of largest seismic waves for a magnitude increase of 1 10x
how much greater is the energy of largest seismic waves for a magnitude increase of 1 32x
this scale rates the total amount of energy released by an earthquake and is most often cited by news reporters when describing an earthquake size moment magnitude scale
this scale measures the damage caused by an earthquake on a scale of I to XII Mercalli scale
structural failure during an earthquake that occurs when floors of a tall building collapse on top of each other "pancaking"
failure of ground during an earthquake where water-saturated soil acts like a liquid, often causing buildings to sink and/or buried objects to float up soil liquefaction
fast-moving wave formed when seafloor rises and lifts a column of water during a quake, often causing the most damage/loss of life tsunami
Created by: goakley