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SLSBio12 ExcretorySM

SLS Bio 12 Excretory System SM

Antidiruetic Hormone (ADH) released by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain after being made nearby (in the hypothalamus). ADH has an antidiuretic action that prevents the production of dilute urine
Adrenal Cortex The outer portion of the adrenal gland located on top of each kidney. The adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones which regulate carbohydrate and fat metabolism and mineralocorticoid hormones which regulate salt and water balance in the body.
Afferent Arteriole a group of blood vessels that supply the nephrons, branch from the renal artery
Efferent Arteriole form from a convergence of the capillaries of the glomerulus. They play an important role in maintaining the glomerular filtration rate
Aldosterone a corticosteroid hormone that stimulates absorption of sodium by the kidneys and so regulates water and salt balance.
Ammonia combines with CO2 to produce urea, a byproduct of amino acid hydrolysis
Bowman's Capsule a capsule-shaped membranous structure surrounding the glomerulus of each nephron in the kidneys of mammals that extracts wastes, excess salts, and water from the blood.
Collecting Duct connect the nephrons to the ureter. It participates in electrolyte and fluid balance through reabsorption and excretion, processes regulated by the hormones aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone.
Glomerulus a cluster of capillaries around the end of a kidney tubule, where waste products are filtered from the blood.
Homeostasis balance, maintained by the hypothalamus that controls glands to release certain hormones
Hypothalamus releases hormones to maintain homeostasis
Kidney each of a pair of organs in the abdominal cavity of mammals, birds, and reptiles, excreting urine.
Loop of Henle the part of a kidney tubule that forms a long loop in the medulla of the kidney, from which water and salts are resorbed into the blood.
Metabolic Waste substances left over from excretory processes, which cannot be used by the organism, and must therefore be excreted
Nephron each of the functional units in the kidney, consisting of a glomerulus and its associated tubule, through which the glomerular filtrate passes before emerging as urine.
Nitrogenous Waste Any metabolic waste product that contains nitrogen. Urea and uric acid are the most common nitrogenous waste products
Osmotic Gradient difference in concentration between two solutions on either side of a semipermeable membrane
Peritubular Capillary Network tiny blood vessels that travel alongside nephrons allowing reabsorption and secretion between blood and the inner lumen of the nephron.
Posterior Pituitary The posterior pituitary secretes the hormone oxytocin which increases uterine contractions and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which increases reabsorption of water by the tubules of the kidney
Pressure Filtration the renal process whereby fluid in the blood is filtered across the capillaries of the glomerulus and into the urinary space of Bowman's capsule.
Proximal Convoluted Tubules the convoluted portion of the vertebrate nephron that lies between Bowman's capsule and the loop of Henle and functions especially in the resorption of sugar, sodium and chloride ions, and water from the glomerular filtrate
Distal Convoluted Tubules is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct system.
Renal Artery brings blood to the kidneys
Renal Cortex the outer portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla
Renal Medulla the innermost part of the kidney. The renal medulla is split up into a number of sections, known as the renal pyramids
Renal Pelvis The area at the center of the kidney. Urine collects in the renal pelvis and is funneled into the ureter.
Renal Vein Takes blood that is high in CO2 away from the kidneys
Selective Reabsorption the kidney selectively reabsorbs substances it has already secreted into the renal tubules, such as glucose, protein, and sodium. These reabsorbed substances are returned to the blood.
Tubular Excretion the transfer of materials from peritubular capillaries to renal tubular lumen. Tubular secretion is caused mainly by active transport
Urea a colorless crystalline compound that is the main nitrogenous breakdown product of protein metabolism in mammals and is excreted in urine.
Ureter the duct by which urine passes from the kidney to the bladder
Urethra the duct by which urine is conveyed out of the body from the bladder, and which in male vertebrates also conveys semen.
Urinary Bladder A saclike structure that stores urine until it can be passed out of the body through the urethra.
Urine It is one of the body's chief means of eliminating excess water and salt and also contains nitrogen compounds such as urea and other waste substances removed from the blood by the kidneys
Created by: Smorrison