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Chapter 19

Reproductive System Disorders

spermatogenesis the production of spermatozoa, is a continuous process
seminiferous tubules "sperm factories"
epididymis where the sperm mature
ampulla where sperm is stored for several weeks until ejaculation occurs
seminal vesicles located behind the bladder, provide secretion that includes fructose to nourish the sperm
prostate gland surrounds the urethra at the base of the bladder, adds an alkaline fluid to provide optimum pH of around 6 for ferilization
bulbourethral glands situated near the base of the penis, secrete an alkaline mucus, which probably neutralizes any residual urine in the urethra
Follicle-stimulating hormone initiates spermatogenesis
Luteinizing hormone stimulates testosterone production by the interstitial cells in the testes
testosterone is essential for maturation of sperm
Epispadias refers to a urethral opening on the dorsal (upper) surface of the penis, proximal to the glands
Hypospadias a urethral opening on the ventral (under) surface of the penis; it is considered more severe
Cryptorchidism occurs when one of the testes fails to descend into the normal position in the scrotum during the latter part of pregnancy
Hydrocele occurs when excessive fluid collects in the potential space between the layers of the tunica vaginalis
Spermatocele a cyst containing fluid & sperm that develops between the testis & the epididymis outside the tunica vaginalis
Varicocele is a dilated vein in the spermatic cord, usually on the left side
Prostatitis inflammation of the prostate gland; recurrent infections can lead to prostate cancer; caused primarily by Ecoli
Balanitis a fungal infection of the glans penis that can be transmitted by sexual activity
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) very common disorder in men; causes urinary obstruction, but is not associated with malignancy
gynecomastia enlarged breasts
vulva female external genitalia; includes the mons pubis, labia, clitoris, & vaginal orifice
mons pubis consists of adipose tissue & hair covering the symphysis pubis
labia majora the outer fold
labia minora long, thin folds of skin extending back & down from the mons pubis, protecting the orificis
clitoris is a small projection of erectile tissue located anterior to the urethra
leukorrhea normal vaginal discharge
acini the basic functional units of the breast tissue
dyspareunia painful intercourse
cystocele protrusion of the bladder into the anterior wall of the vagina
rectocele protrusion of the rectum into the posterior wall of the vagina
Menorrhagia increased amount & duration of flow
Metrorrhagia bleeding between cycles
Polymenrrhea short cycles of less than 3 weeks
Oligomenorrhea long cycles of more than 6 weeks
Candidiasis yeast infection; is a frequent opportunistic vaginal infection in women
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) a serious bacterial infection of the reproductive tract, particularly the fallopian tubes & ovaries; usually originates as vaginitis or cervicitis; treatment involves aggressive antimicrobials
Leiomyoma (Fibroids) a benign tumor of the myometrium, the cause of which is unknown
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome large ovaries containing cysts & covered with a thick capsule develop
Fibrocystic Breast Disease benign breast disease including a broad range of breast lesions
Endometriosis is a cause of dysmenorrhea & infertility
Complications of BPH Nodules form in inner prostate Urethra is compressed Obstruction of urine flow Incomplete emptying of bladder Infection (cystitis) Hydronephrosis Kidney damage
Treatment of BPH Surgery Flomax (tamsulosin)- relaxes smooth muscle in prostate & bladder, resulting in increased flow of urine
Created by: mschumacher1