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Chapter 8

Skin Disorders

epidermis outer layer of the skin; consists of 5 layers, which vary in thickness at different areas of the body; no blood vessels or nerves
dermis thick layer of connective tissue that includes elastic & collagen fibers and varies in thickness over the body; consist of nerves & blood vessels
keratin a protein found in the skin, hair, & nails
macule small flat, circumscribed lesion of a different color
cellulitis infection of dermis and subcutaneous tissue
excoration abrasion or injury to skin
denuded stripping off skin, leaving bare
atopic inherited tendancy toward allergic conditions
skin lesions helpful in making a diagnosis
autoinoculation transfer by fingers of microbes from one site to another
Herpes Simplex Type 1 cold sores or fever blisters
pustule elevated, erythematous lesion containing purulent exudate
albinism recessive trait leading to lack of melanin production
lichenification thick & leathery patches
Kaposi Sarcoma purplish macules often on face, scalp, oral mucosa
scabies invasion by a mite into epidermis causing inflammation/pruritis
candida infections fungal infection
squamous cell carcinoma painless, malignant tumor of epidermis
pemphigus autoantibodies disrupt cohesion between epidermal cells
keratoses benign lesions usually associated with aging
sebum keeps the hair & skin soft & retards fluid loss
skin largest organ in the body
papule small, firm, elevated lesion
nodule palpable elevated lesion; varies in size
vesicle elevated, thin-walled lesion containing clear fluid (blister)
plaque large, slightly elevated lesion with flat surface, often topped by scale
crust dry, rough surface or dried exudate or blood
keloid raised, irregular, & increasing mass of collagen resulting from excessive scar tissue formation
fissure small, deep, linear crack or tear in skin
ulcer cavity with loss of tissue from the epidermis & dermis, often weeping or bleeding
erosion shallow, moist cavity in epidermis
comedone mass of sebum, keratin, & debris blocking the opening of a hair follicle
Contact Dermatitis may be caused by exposure to an allergen or by direct chemical or mechanical irritation of the skin
Urticaria hives; results from a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction, commonly caused by ingested substances such as shellfish or certain fruits or drugs
Atopic Dermatitis eczema; affected skin appears dry & scaling with thick & leathery patches
Psoriasis chronic inflammatory skin disorder marked by remissions & exacerbations. Results from abnormal activation of T cells & an associated increase in cytokines in affected tissue.
Scleroderma collagen deposition in the arterioles & capillaries reduces blood flow to the skin and/or internal organs leading to hard, shiny, tight, immovable areas of the skin
Furuncles boil; an infection usually by S. aureus, which begins in a hair follicle & spreads into the surrounding dermis
Impetigo highly contagious infection caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci; lesions commonly occur on the face & begin as small vesicles, which rapidly enlarge & rupture to form yellowish-brown crusty masses
Acute Necrotizing Fasciitis flesh-eating disease characterized by bacterial invasion with rapid tissue destruction and septic shock
Leprosy contagious disease that affects the skin, mucous membranes, & nerves, causing discoloration and lumps on the skin and, in severe cases, disfigurement & deformities & can lead to loss of limbs
Herpes Simplex 2 genital herpes
Verrucae warts; caused by HPVs
Mycoses fungal infections such as tinea, which may affect the feet, the scalp, or the body
tinea capitis an infection of the scalp
tinea corporis fungal infection of the body, particularly the non-hairy parts
tinea pedis athlete's foot; involves the feet, particularly the toes
tinea unguium an infection of the nails, particularly the toenails
Pediculosis lice; may infect the scalp or body, thriving on human blood
"ABCD" Signs that a mole may be malanoma 1. Area of the mole is increase 2. Border is irregular 3. Color is changed in the mole 4. Diameter of the mole is increased
stratum basale innermost layer of the epidermis; located on the basement membrane
melanin dark pigment
vitiligo small areas of hypopigmentation
melisma or chloasma patches of darker skin, often on the face
sebaceous glands produce an oily secretion
sweat glands helps us to cool off when overheated
2 types of sweat glands Eccrine & Apocrine
Eccrine glands that are located all over the body and secrete sweat through pores onto the skin in response to increased heat or emotional stress (SNS control)
Apocrine sweat glands that are located in the axillae, scalp, face, and external genitalia
Functions of the skin 1. When unbroken, it provides the first line of defense 2. Prevents excessive fluid loss 3. Controls body temperature 4. Plays as a defense against environmental hazards, as a learning tool 5. Synthesis & activation of Vitamin D
Malignant melanoma arising from a nevus, grows quickly & metastasizes early
Viral Infections Herpes Simplex Type 1(cold sores) Herpes Simplex Type 2 (genital herpes) Verrucae (warts)
Fungal Infections Tinea Capitis (infection of the scalp) Tinea Corporis (infection of the body; non-hairy parts) Tinea Pedis (athlete's foot)
Bacterial Infections Cellulitis Furuncles (boil) Impetigo (yellowish-brown lesions which commonly occur on the face) Acute Necrotizing Fasciitis Leprosy
Inflammatory Disorders Contact Dermatitis Urticaria (hives) Atopic Dermatitis (eczema) Psoriasis Pemphigus Scleroderma
Systemic infections chickenpox, or allergies to ingested food or drugs
Localized infections exposure to toxins
Squamous Cell Carcinoma a slow-growing tumor common to exposed areas
Malignant Melanoma arising from nevus, grows quickly & metastasizes early
Created by: mschumacher1