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Criminology

Review for Final

TermDefinition
Classical School of Theories -humans have free will -rationality and intelligence are core human characteristics -Utilitarianism(best for the greater good->purpose) and Hedonism (pleasure above pain)
Deterrence Theory: argues that most people do not engage in crime because we are fearful of the punishment. Argues that you can prevent crime through punishment and fear of punishment. fear of punishment leads or does not lead to crime (constructs) measures of fear of punishment: -certainty;severity;swiftness specific deterent general deterent
Rational Choice Theory Opportuniy--> Crime -weigh options-pick best choice for you -Choice and opportunity -how you thing about choice connects to crime -your view of opportunity determines how you respond Costs>benefits X crime Benefits>costs=crime
Routine Activities Theory: only theory that explains criminal behavior and victimization that we discussed this semester presumes everyone is a motivated offender motivated offender+suitable target+lack of capable guardian=Crime(opportunity or victimization) convergence of these 3=hotspot;anyone can be an offender-motive varies;how you view opportunities leads 2 offending
Positivistic School of Theories -people lack free will -pre-determined paths -does not support detterenced
Choice Theories(grouping) -Detterence theory -Rational Choice theory -Routine Activities theory
Trait theories (grouping) Biolobical theory(traditional vs. modern/biosocial)
Social Structural theories (grouping) -Social Disorganization theory -Merton's Strain theory -General Strain theory -Institutional Strain theory
Social Process theories (grouping) -Social Learning theory(Differential Reinforcement Theory) -Social Control theory (Social Bonding Theory) -Labeling theory assumes our socialization determines our paths believes crime in normal micro level crime is a social attribute
Critical theories (grouping) -Marxism -Conflict -Feminism
Developmental Theories or Life-Course theories (grouping) -Self Control -Sampson and Laub Age Graded theory -Moffitt Development theory key terms:onset(start),desistence(stop), frequency(often of offending), duration(length of crim. career) age out of crime (15-25 peak)
Integrated theories (grouping) -Reintegrative Shaming theory
Biological Theory-Modern/Bio Social: Argues that your genes connect to your environment and determine your connection to criminal behavior. Traditional:phrenology,heredity/genetics,traits-atavism(biological throwback) Modern/Bio-social: predisposition and environment
Social Disorganization Theory: assumes crime stays in a neighborhood due to the breakdown of informal and formal controls Physical decay+Socail decay+collective efficacy (social ties/network;social capital)=crime Zone II-anime(normlessness);pockets of cultures(heterogeneity);poverty;no strong sense of informal social contols
Merton's Strain Theory Aspirations(goals) X expectations (real ability to meet/achieve goals)=anomie=crime adaptations to strain:conformity,ritualism,innovation,retreatism,rebellion
General Strain Theory (explains why people commit ALL types of crimes): argues that if you can find better ways of coping with the stress in your life, crime can be reduced. Strain( goals/ means; +negative stimuli; - positive stimuli)+emotional states (anger is major contributer)+coping abilities=crime
Institutional Strain Theory American Dream=crime our beliefs created by institutions (politics,famil,government,education,religion) leads to crime
Social Learning Theory(Differential Reinforcement Theory): believes crime is normal and we learn the behavior through socialization. Con:diff. association(primary/secondary groups)+definitions(favor/unfavorable(belief/behaviors)+diff. reinforcement(neg./pos. reinforcement/punishment)+imitation(modeling behaviors) assumes we learn from peers,family, etc argues crime starts very young
Social Control Theory(Social Bonding Theory) socialization(secondary/primary)+controls(formal/informal)+social bonds(attachements commitments involements beliefs) concered w/ Y people don't commit crime;believes everyone haspropensity2commit crime-has 2B something 2 stop us;family is key socializat
Labeling Theory: Suggests the criminal justice system is to blame for recidivism--argues society creates criminals and crime through labels formal label-criminal justice system label; informal label-societies label; label causes secondary deviance which causes crime(acceptance of label is key)
Marxism capitalism is the death of everything; Capitalism is the root of all--it makes us independent--creates social gaps/leads to conflicts--1% will always remain in the 1%
Conflict Argues that society is set up in a way that creates conflicts; those who are in power want to remain in power so the keep others from ever gaining power- lower classes are sub par
Feminism
Self-Control: presumes by the age of 8 our risky behavior is set as is our propensity to engage in crime (Stability postulate- self control held constant by age 8) Poor parenting is linked with low self control by socialization=crime;self control measures:impulsivity,riskseeking,physical activities,self-centeredness,temper,simple task oriented if you can't control yourself you're more likely to engage in crime
Sampson and Laub Age Graded Theory(AKA life course perspective) argues that crime is engaged in for different reasons at different ages but the family is to blame for adolescent crime; 3 T's- trajectories, transitions, turning points
Moffitt Development Theory life course perspective(commit crime because the can't help it, don't know how else to act/respond; and Adolescence-Limited(commit crime to rebel, learn what freedom is, our responsibilities etc
Reintegrative Shaming Theory:argues the we need punishments that aren't going to stigmatize people and we need to reintegrate offenders back into society. Shaming should be more informal Secondary deviance+shaming (neg/pos)+ interdependancy and communitarianism=crime
Measures of fear of punishment (detterence theory) certainty-how certain is someone going to be punished for a crime(10% get punished);severity-punishment is equal to the crime(proportionality) our system has problems w/ this;swiftness- how quickly is the punishment recieved.
specific deterrent death penalty, life in prison (deters individual-they can't commit crime in society)
General deterence deterence for large population (idea that people won't commit crime b/c they will be punished for it and they want to follow the social contract)
Social Disorganization Theory (social structural theory) argues: If you can't build community structure then you can't reduce crime tested by surveys, interviews social structures=environment, school,social class
Informal controls (social disorganization theory) most powerful; community subcultures(beliefs), smaller groups (parents, peers, unwritten rules); controls neighborhoods
Formal controls(social disorganization theory) laws, rules, regulations (fed. gov't, schools, courts, police)
Negative Reinforcement (social learning/diff. reinforcement theory) avoidance of punishment;beeing grounded then being allowed out because they got better grades-rewarded via the avoidance of something negative
Negative Punishment (social learning theory) lack of reward; taking away car privileges (removal of positive aspect/reward)
Positive Reinforcement(social learning theory) encourages behavior with reward;given a car when graduated college
Positive Punishment(social learning theory) anything that presents negative feelings or sensations-gives negative stimulus; spanking
Attachment (social bonding theory) people; prosocial relationships w/ others (social ties) the belief that if you like, care, love people/someone you won't commit crime;afraid to lose the people you love/care about
Commitments (social bonding theory) what you are attached to/committed to the more you belong to the less likely you are to commit crime
Involvement (social bonding theory) amount of time you provide to the things you are committed to the more time you spend to the things you are committed to the less likely you are 2 commit crime--not just about time(you'd rather spend your time w/ the things you care about- no time 4crime
Belief (social bonding theory) what you value; what you think is right/wrong, moral/immoral the more you believe prosocial things are good the less likely you are to commit crime
Self Control Theory Beliefs crime is hedonistic-based(pleasure);cime is opportunity-based;crimes are easy and need little planning;crimes can be risky and exciting; they don't need distinctions b/w petty/serious explains both crimes and analogous behaviors (relate to being risky)
Created by: 763668857