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Ch 29 Lesson 1

BIOLOGY TEST

QuestionAnswer
what does homeostasis depend on the ability of different systems in your body to communicate with one another
what two systems help you maintain homeostasis nervous and endocrine
what is the nervous system a physically connected network of cells, tissues, and organs that controls thoughts, movements, and simpler life processes
what is the endocrine system a collection of physically disconnected organs that helps to control growth, development, and responses to your environment
what is a stimulus something that causes a response
what kind of changes can trigger a stimulus chemical, cellular, or behavioral
which system's chemical signals are carried by the bloodstream throughout the body endocrine system
what does your nervous system send its signals through a network of specialized tissues
what are the 3 main parts of the neuron cell body, dendrites, axon
cell body contains nucleus and organelles
dendrites branchlike extensions of cytoplasm and cell membrane, receives messages
axon long extension that carries electrical messages away from cell ]body
what are the 3 types of neurons sensory, inter, and motor
sensory neuron detects stimuli transmits signals to brain and spinal cord
inter neuron brain and spinal cord receives signals from sensory neurons relays signals within the brain and spinal cord process info and pass signals to motor neurons
motor neuron pass messages from NS to other tissues in the body
why does a neuron maintain a charged difference across its membrane so it is ready to transmit impulses when stimulated
what is the main reason for the resting potential 1. there are more channels for K+ then Na+ + charges leave cell faster then they enters unequal diffusion 2. the sodium-potassium pump transports Na+ and K+ against their gradients
what are the 5 senses sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch
what are the 5 receptors photorec (sense light), mechanorec (responds to pressure, movement, and tension), thermorec (monitors receptors), chemorec (detects chemicals dissolved in fluid), pain rec (responds to extreme heat, cold, and pressure, and to chemicals)
which sense do humans rely on more then any other sense sight - eye has 70% of all sensory rec in the body
what and where are photorec rods and cones on the retina
what is an iris the colored part of the eye and it controls the size of the pupil
what is the cochlea a structure of fluid-filled canals moves in response to vibrations
hearing sound waves/air/vibrations- pinna- auditory canal- eardrum=tympanic membrane- drum vibrates- vibrations amplified by three bones in middle ear, cochlea (fluid moves)- and causes cilia hair cells to bend- impulse- auditory nerve- brain- sound
what are the three bones of the middle ear malleus, incus, stapes
smell airborne chemicals enter nose- which dissolve in mucus- detected by olfactory cells- generates impulse- olfactory nerves takes impulse to the brain
what are taste buds chemoreceptors that detect tastes, found in bumps on the tongue called papillae
what does smell and taste have in common they both have chemorec where the chemicals must be dissolved in fluid before it generates an impulse
what kind of receptors are on the skin mechanorec- two types are receptors that detect gentle which is located in the upper layer of the skin, and receptors that detect heavy pressure which is located in the deeper layers
what information is gathered by the frontal lobe personality, reasoning, and judgement, voluntary movement, and speech
what information is gathered by the parietal lobe sensory cortex gathers information about touh
what information is gathered by the temporal lobe speech interpretation, hearing, and memory
what information is gathered by the occipital lobe visual information
what are meninges three layers of connective tissue that protect the brain
3 structures of the brain cerebellum, cerebrum, brain stem
what is gray matter collection of neurons cell bodies
what is white matter collection of axons (myelin sheath)
corpus callosum nerves that connect the two hemispheres
thalamus sorts info from sensory organs and passes signals between the spinal cord and other parts of the brain
hypothalmus gathers info about body temperature, hunger, and thirst. sends signals to maintain homeostasis
3 parts of the brain stem midbrain- controls reflexes such as people size, pons- regulates breathing, and medulla oblongata- controls life sustaining functions such as the heart, vommiting, swallowing, and coughing
spinal cord ropelike bundle of neurons connecting the brain to the nerves
how do stimulants cause more action potentials increase neurotransmitter in synapse decrease removal of neurotransmitter in synapse
how do depressants cause fewer action potentials produce neurotransmitter that prevent impulses slow release of neurotransmitter that generates impulses
whats the difference between steroid and nonsteroid hormones steroid diffuses into the cell membrane and nonsteroid does not (binds on cell membrane) steroid causes DNA to make proteins, nonsteroid makes enzymes
what are the two major functions of the hypothalamus as part of CNS, it receives info from sensory organs as part of Endocrine System, it produces releasing hormones