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Endocrine

Everything I need to know

QuestionAnswer
What is the target organ for the hypothalamus? Anterior Pituitary
What does the hypothalamus do? Release hormones
What are the target organs for the posterior pituitary? kidney, uterus, breast tissue
What hormones are released by the posterior pituitary? ADH, Oxytocin
What is the target organ for ADH? Kidney
What does ADH do? Conserve H2O/reabsorb H2O in renal tubules
What is the target organ for oxytocin? Uterus and breast tissue
What does oxytocin help with? Produce contractions and lactation
What are the target organs for the anterior pituitary? Adrenal cortex, skin, body tissues, thyroid, ovaries/testes, breast
What hormones are released by the anterior pituitary? ACTH, Melanocyte-stimulating, GH, TSH, FSH, Prolactin, LH
What is the target organ for ACTH? Adrenal cortex
What is the target organ for melanocyte-stimulating hormone? Skin
What is the target organ for GH? Body tissues
What is the target organ for TSH? Thyroid
What is the target organ for FSH? Ovaries/Testes
What is the target organ for prolactin? Breast
What is the target organ for LH? Ovaries/Testes
What does ACTH do? Stimulates glucocorticoid production
What does the melanocyte-stimulating hormone do? Stimulates pigment production
What does GH do? Promotes growth
What does TSH do? Stimulates production and release of TH's (T3 and T4)
What does FSH do? Initiates maturation of ovary follicles; stimulates spermatogenesis.
What is the target organ for the thyroid? Cells, Bones
What hormones are released by the thyroid? Thyroxine (T3 & T4), Calcitonin
What is the target organ for thyroxine (T3 & T4)? Cells
What does thyroxine (T3 & T4) do? Increases the rate of cellular metabolism
What is the target organ for calcitonin? Bones
What does calcitonin do? Osteoblast; lowers serum calcium
What hormones are released by the parathyroid? PTH
What is the target organ for PTH? Bones
What does PTH do? Osteoclast; raises serum calcium
What hormones are released by the pancreas? Insulin, Amylin, Glucagon
What is the target organ for insulin? Cells
What does insulin do? Promotes glucose use; lowers serum glucose
What is the target organ for amylin? Cells
What does amylin do? Delays nutrient uptake and suppresses glucagon after meals
What is the target organ for glucagon? Liver
What does glucagon do? Promotes glucagon use; raises serum glucose
What hormones are released by the adrenal cortex? Glucocorticoids, Mineralcorticoids, Androgen, Estrogen
What is the target organ for glucocorticoid? Cells
What do glucocorticoids do? Antagonizes effects of insulin; inhibits inflammation and fibroblastic activity
What is the target organ for mineralcorticoids? Kidney
What do mineralcorticoids do? Promotes retention of sodium
What is the target organ for androgen and estrogen? Body
What does androgen and estrogen do? Promotes 2nd sex characteristics
What hormones are released by the adrenal medulla? Catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine)
What is the target organ for catecholamines? Heart and smooth muscles
What do catecholamines do? Regulates blood pressure by effects on vascular smooth muscles and heart
What hormone is released by the pineal gland? Melatonin
What is the target organ for melatonin? Unclear (brain/reproductive organs)
What does melatonin do? Regulates body clock for alertness/sleep
Hyperthyroidism An overproduction of thyroid hormone creating a metabolic imbalance
Hypothyroidism A deficit in triiodothyronine (T3) or thyroxine (T4) resulting in metabolic processes slowing down.
Hyperparathyroidism
Hypoparathyroidism
Addison's Disease Adrenal hypofunction
Grave's Disease Autoimmune response. Exophthalmos and goiters.
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus IDDM, Pancreas makes little to no insulin
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Genetic, obesity and sedentary increases risk, pancreas produces some insulin but not enough
Signs and Symptoms for Type 1 DM extreme thirst, high levels of ketones in urine, no appetite or increase in appetite, drowsy/lethargic, fruity breath, frequent urination, high glucose in blood or urine, rapid/hard/heavy breathing, eventual stupor to unconsciousness
Signs and Symptoms for Type 2 DM possibly no symptoms, frequent urination, excessive thirst, fatigue, very dry skin, slow to heal sores, tingling or numbness, in hands, dehydration, unexplained weight loss, extreme hunger, sudden vision change
Sings and Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism Enlarged thyroid gland, Exophthalmos (bulging eyes), Heat intolerance, Weight loss, Excessive sweating, Diarrhea, Tremors, Palpitations, SOB, Muscle weakness/atrophy
Signs and Symptoms of Hypothyroidism Energy loss, Fatigue, Forgetfulness, Sensitivity to cold, Unexplained weight gain, Constipation, Anorexia, decreased libido, Menorrhagia, Paresthesia, Joint stiffness, Muscle cramping
SIADH Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Excessive ADH secretion
Signs and Symptoms of SIADH Fatigue, lethargy, anorexia, thirst, vomiting, intestinal cramping, weight gain, edema, water retention, decreased urine output, restlessness, confusion, irritability, headache, seizures, coma, decreased DTR's
Created by: jkadel