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Anatomy

Spines and systems

TermDefinition
Facial muscles located subcutaneously, attach to bone/fascia of skull. Conveys emotions. orbicularis oris and oculi and buccinator
Facial muscle innervation Cranial nerve 7 (facial cn) muscles of expression
skin of face innervation Cranial nerve 5 (trigeminal cn)
Orbicularis oculi muscle around eye orbital and palprebral parts.
orbicularis oris muscles around mouth. produces puckering or whsitling, speech, mastication
buccinator muscles in cheek, keep cheeks taut, active in smiling, mastication, whistling and sucking.
temporomandibular joint (TMJ) 2 of them on each side of face. synovial joint contain mandible (condyle), temporal bone (mandibular fossa+ articular eminance (tubercle) and intra-articular disc.
Functions of TMJ open and close mouth, chewing, talking, elevate, pro/retract jaw, lateral deviation.
mandible function body: carries teeth, transmits force ramus: transmits forces, insertion of muscles that move jaw.
muscles of mastication digastric, temporalis, masseter, medial and lateral pterygoid
innervation of muscles of mastication Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve.
digastric opens mouth widely retract mandible
temporalis function elevate mandible, retract mandible, counteract gravity on jaw, chewing softly
temporalis attachment sites lateral surface of skull (temporal fossa) to coronoid process and anterior part of ramus of mandible.
masseter function elevation of mandible, pulls mandible forward, biting, protract mandible
masseter attachments zygomatic arch to ramus and angle of mandible
medial pterygoid functions elevation of mandible, protract mandible
medial pterygoid attachments medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate to ramus and angle of mandible
lateral pterygoid function protract mandible, lateral deviation of mandible
vertebral column function balance skull, support thoracic cavity, muscle attachment, protect spinal cord
cervical spine function C1-C7. support and move skeleton,
thoracic spine function T1-T12 suspend ribs, support thoracic cavity
Lumbar spine function L1-L5 mobility between thorax and pelvis.
sacral spine function S1-S5 bind vertebra to pelvis
coccygeal spine function support pelvic floor
kyphosis posterior curvature present in thoracic and sacral regions
lordotic curves anterior curvature present in lumbar and cervical
vertebral body function weight bearing/transmission
vertebral arch function enclose spinal sord
pedicle function transmit force between anterior and posterior elements, resist bending
laminae function force transmission, form posterior wall of vertebral canal
spinous and transverse parts of vertebrae muscle and ligament attachment sites
ring apophysis function attachment of anulus fibrosus
transverse process function leverage, muscle attachement
articular process function guide and direct movement
Created by: sutle