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Physiology (Test 3)

The liver has how many lobes? 4
What are the names of the lobes of the liver? 1)right, 2)left, 3)caudate, 4)quadrate
Which of the lobes of the liver is the largest? right lobe
What are liver cells called? hepatocytes
What type of cells are hepatocytes? reddish, brownish, simple quboidal cells
What are the 8 functions of hepatocytes? 1)contain CP450, 2)makes plasma proteins, 3)controls/regulated lipid metabolism, 4)stores fate-soluble vitamins, 5)stores and controls vit B12, 6)regulates iron metabolism, 7)clears blood of hemoglobin metabolites, 8)makes bile
Define cytochrome P-450. powerful family of detoxifying enzymes
What are some plasma proteins made by the liver? albumin, globulins, clotting factors
What are some fat-soluble vitamins stored by the liver? D, E, A, K
What is 1 water-soluble vitamin stored by the liver? vitamin B12
What are some hemoglobin metabolites that are cleared from the blood by the liver? biliverdin, bilirubin
What is biliverdin? greenish pigment of hemoglobin breakdown
What is bilirubin? reddish yellow pigment of hemoglobin breakdown
Why is the clearing of hemoglobin metabolites by the liver important? without it, the metabolites would build up and produce jaundice; these metabolites are also toxic at high levels
What is jaundice? yellow coloring of skin
What does the liver make bile from? biliverdin and bilirubin
Describe the pathway of bile. made in liver, stored in gallbladder, dumped into intestine, eliminated in feces
What are the 2 major excretory pathways of the body? 1)bile, 2)urine
What is the tiny, microscopic functional unit of the hepatic lobes? lobule
Describe the appearance and formation of hepatic lobules. long, cylindrical, running up and down, lined side-by-side
What runs down the middle of the lobule? central vein
Rows of __________________ go around the central vein, like spokes on a wheel. hepatocytes
In between the rows of hepatocytes are large _____________. sinusoids
From the top, each lobule looks like a _______________. hexagon
On the outside of the lobule, you see ________________ wrapped in connective tissue. hepatic triads
What 3 things form the hepatic triad? 1)branch of hepatic portal vein, 2) branch of hepatic artery, 3)branch of bile duct
What is the function of the hepatic portal vein? brings venous blood down the sinusoids to the central vein; it runs from the intestines to liver; everything you absorb from the GI tract goes first through the liver, before it goes to the inferior vena cava and enters general circulation
What is the function of the hepatic artery? supplies O2 to the hepatocytes; allows for repeat cycles of blood through the liver
What is the function of the bile duct? while the blood is flowing down the sinusoids, the hepatocytes are making bile and pushing it toward the bile duct away from the central vein (opposite direction of blood flow)
What is the function of bile? helps us digest fats
For a normal functioning liver you have to have open ___________ for blood to flow through (from hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery to central vein). sinusoids
True or False: The liver is very resistant and capable of repairing itself. True
If chronic damage to the liver occurs, it overwhelms the liver and _________________ move in and low down large amounts of _______________, forming a __________. fibroblasts/fibrocytes; collagen; scar
Scarring of the liver is called _________________. cirrhosis (normally called fibrosis)
What happens after a liver is full of scar tissue/cirrhosis? restricts blood flow, lose some liver function, pressure backs up into the hepatic portal vein, portal HTN, possible rupture of esophageal veins