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Acid-base Balance

Physiology (Test 3)

H+ ion concentration in the body is very (large or small?) small
H+ ion concentration in the body is _______ nanograms/dL. 4 nanograms/dL
True or False: H+ ion concentration is tightly regulated. True
What is a normal pH range? 7.35-7.45
What are some consequences of a pH <7.35? (things stop) acidemia, asystole, cardiovascular collapse, death
What are some consequences of a pH >7.45? (hyperexcitable) tetany, arrhythmias, death
If you begin to accumulate too much bicarb ion, the "needle swings" toward a (higher or lower?) pH. higher
If you begin to accumulate too much CO2, the "needle swings" toward a (higher or lower?) pH. lower
Since the acid-base balance is so important, we have to have several compensatory mechanisms to keep it in range. What are 3 of those mechanisms? 1)buffering, 2)compensation, 3)correction
Define chemical buffer. What are its components? resists an abrupt change in pH; made of a weak acid and the salt of a weak acid
What is the most common body buffer? bicarbonate buffer
What is the acid in the bicarbonate buffer? The salt? acid=H2CO3, salt=NaHCO3 (sodium bicarb)
How does HCl- react when introduced to the bicarb buffer? the H+ binds with the HCO3- making more acid; the Cl- binds with the Na+ making more salt
How does NaOH- react when introduced to the bicarb buffer? OH- binds with H+ making H2O, and Na+ binds with HCO3- making NaHCO3
True or False: You also have a phosphate buffer in the body. True
What 2 organs are involved in pH compensation? kidneys and lungs
What organs/systems are "at fault" during respiratory acidosis/alkalosis? respiratory system (lungs OR the CNS respiratory groups)
Respiratory acidosis is caused by (increased or decreased?) ventilation? decreased
What are some causes of respiratory acidosis? 1)COPD, 2)CNS depressant overdose, 3)obstructed airway like a mucus plug, 4)emphysema
During respiratory acidosis, the (right or left?) side of the equation will increase, the equation will swing (right or left?) causing too much (H+ or CO2?) respiratory acidosis= left side of the equation increases, equation will swing right, causing too much H+
What are some causes of metabolic acidosis? renal failure, severe prolonged diarrhea or vomiting from duodenum, lacticacidosis/ketoacidosis, antifreeze/methanol/ethanol poisoning
How does severe prolonged diarrhea or vomiting from duodenum cause metabolic acidosis? loss of HCO3-
What causes lactic acidosis? lactic acid in muscles; released when not using Citric Acid Cycle, only glycolysis to make ATP; OK during exercise, if happens during rest --> means there is shock or ischemia somewhere
What causes ketoacidosis? diabetics can't burn sugar, so fats are burned and long-chain fatty acids are chopped; some fragments are used and some fragments are left as ketones
Alcohols are converted to ________________, which are converted to _____________. aldehydes; acids
Ethanol is converted to _______________, which is converted to ___________________. acetaldyhyde; acetic acid
Methanol is converted to _______________, which is converted to __________________. formaldehyde; formic acid
Where is methanol found? in paint thinners/cleaners
True or False: A treatment for methanol overdose is to infuse the body with ethanol. True: The enzyme will focus on metabolizing the ethanol, giving you time to dialyze out the methanol before it is metabolized into toxic formaldehyde
Antifreeze is metabolized into _____________. How is it harmful? oxalic acid; some precipitates forming harmful kidney stones
What is the anion gap equation? (Na+ - Cl-) + HCO3- = 10 - -2 = 12
How will decreasing bicarb affect the anion gap? increases the gap; b/c Na+ and Cl- remain constant
What can cause respiratory alkalosis? hyperventilation
How does hyperventilation cause respiratory alkalosis? losing too much CO2
What can cause metabolic alkalosis? excessive vomiting from the stomach; excessive ingestion of alkaline substances (baking soda)
How does excessive vomiting cause metabolic alkalosis? loss of HCl
___________ is an acid equivalent? CO2
If CO2 forms from H2CO3 and that dissociated equally into H+ and HCO3-, they why don't the 2 neutralize each other? HCO3- is 600,000 X more concentrated in the plasma than H+, so a little more HCO3- goes unnoticed, but a little more H+ makes a difference
What is the first step in determining acidosis or alkalosis? look at pH first!
What pH is acidosis? low pH <7.35
What pH is alkalosis? high pH >7.45
A low pH and high CO2 is... respiratory acidosis
A low pH and low HCO3- is... metabolic acidosis
A high pH and high HCO3- is... metabolic alkalosis
A high pH and low CO2 is... respiratory alkalosis
How do the lungs attempt to compensate for metabolic acidosis/alkalosis? change RR and depth of respiration
How do the kidneys attempt to compensate for respiratory acidosis/alkalosis? alter filtration
How do you know if an acid-base imbalance is only partially compensated? the pH is still out of normal range
How do you know if an acid-base imbalance is completely compensated? the pH is back in normal range