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Bio. Vocab. Test - 2

Biology the study of life
Science process of testing and discovering/explaining various things in the natural world
Homeostasis maintaining stability
Metabolism all the chemical reactions taking place in an organism
Hypothesis educated prediction or possible answer to an observation/problem that can be tested; can be changed repeatedly if necessary
Scientific Theory well substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is acquired through repeated tests that support the same conclusion. Can be changed
Scientific Law several related hypotheses that have been confirmed through testing
Ion atom with a charge; has lost or gained one or more electrons
Hydrogen Bond a weak bond between two molecules that contain hydrogen; between two water molecules
Cohesion two molecules of the same type are attracted to one another
Adhesion two molecules of different types are attracted to one another
Polar molecule that is charged on one end. example: water
Organic contains the element Carbon
Polymer large molecule made up of repeating units
Monomer small sub units that bond together to make up a polymer
Hydrolysis the splitting of water; a chemical reaction that involves the splitting of a water molecule
Dehydration Synthesis chemical reaction that occurs where a molecule of H2O is created
Biomolecule a molecule that is produced by living things
Carbohydrate biomolecule made of C, H, O (sugars, starches, glycogen) used for energy, energy storage & cell to cell recognition
Saccharide word that means sugar
Lipid biomolecule; aka fat: made of glycerol + 3 fatty acids, used for energy storage. Can also be oils and cholesterols
Protein composed of amino acids; contains nitrogen; make up an organism
Nucleic Acids DNA & RNA, used for storage of genetic information that is the blueprint for building proteins
Enzyme proteins that speed up chemical reactions (can either break things down, or put things together)
Activation Energy the amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
Catalyst substance that speeds up a chemical reaction. Ex: enzyme
Prokaryotic cell with NO nucleus, ex. - bacteria
Eukaryotic cells that DO have a nucleus, ex. - everything other than bacteria
Nucleus contains DNA for cell, makes ribosomes (RNA)
Mitochondria power house of the cell; makes energy (ATP)
Ribosome site for protein synthesis
Synthesis to make or put together
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) highway system of the cell. Transports proteins and other things in the cell. Can have ribosomes (rough ER) or no ribosomes (smooth ER)
Golgi Body packages things for the cell
Vacuole storage unit for the cell. In plants, it will hold LOTS of water
Cell Membrane gate keeper, monitors what goes in and what goes out
Cell wall found in plants and bacteria, provides structure for the cell
Chloroplast contains the green pigment chlorophyll, site for photosynthesis
Nucleolus found in nucleus, produces ribosomes
Microtubules help with cell movement
Lysosome gets rid of unwanted waste, recycles
Centrioles helps with cell reproduction
Diffusion the movement of substances from a high to low concentration
Osmosis the diffusion of water
Hyper- prefix that means “more”
Hypo- prefix that means “less”
Iso- prefix that means “equal”
Selective permeability only certain things can go in and out of cell through the cell membrane
Ligand a molecule that a protein receptor binds to
Cyto- Prefix that means “cell”
Endo- Prefix that means “into” or ‘inner’
Exo- Prefix that means “out of” or “exit”
Photosynthesis process that uses light to make sugars
Autotroph auto = self; troph = feeder
Heterotroph must consume food that is then converted to energy (ATP)
Cellular respiration process that uses food (glucose) to make ATP
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate : Cellular energy
Chlorophyll green pigment found in chloroplasts. Site for photosynthesis
Glycolysis “glyco”=sugar; “lysis”=to split: the splitting of sugar
Somatic Cell body cell
Gamete sex cell
Chromosomes coiled DNA, visible under a microscope
Homologous Chromosomes pair of chromosomes that contain the same genetic information. One came from mother, the other from father.
Centromere center of the chromosome
Chromatid ½ of the X forming the chromosome
Mutation change in the DNA sequence or chromosome structure
Cancer uncontrolled cell growth
Diploid cell with 2 sets of chromosomes (ex: somatic cells)
Haploid cell with 1 set of DNA (ex: gametes)
DNA DeoxyriboNucleic Acid: polymer; genetic blueprint that is the genetic code to produce proteins
Double Helix words that mean “twisted staircase”; shape of DNA
Nucleotide Sugar, Phosphate & Nitrogen base; DNA’s monomer
Nitrogen(ous) base adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine in DNA (Uracil replaces thymine in RNA)
Purine type of nitrogen base; examples: adenine and guanine
Pyrimidine type of nitrogen base; examples: thymine and cytosine
Replication making an EXACT copy (replica)
Helicase enzyme, breaks down hydrogen bonds that hold nitrogen bases together (unzips DNA)
DNA Polymerase enzyme that proofreads DNA, corrects mistakes
Deoxyribose sugar that is part of DNA backbone
Gene segment of DNA that codes for a protein
Repressor prevents a gene from being expressed, blocks movement of RNA polymerase
Intron non- coding portions of DNA
Exon coding portions of DNA, codes for proteins
Point mutation one nucleotide changes/switched
Frameshift mutation inserting or deleting a nucleotide, causing nucleotides to shift, changes nearly every amino acid code in the protein from that point
Genetics the study of heredity
Gregor Mendel monk who is known as the father of genetics
Monohybrid Cross genetic cross involving one trait
Phenotype physical characteristic
Homozygous genotype with two alike (same) alleles
Heterozygous genotype with two different alleles
Genotype the alleles of an individual
Allele way to represent a gene, can be in two forms (dominant or recessive)
Dominant expressed form of a trait, represented by a capital letter
Recessive “hidden” form of a trait, takes 2 recessive alleles. Represented by a lower case letter.
Radiometric dating estimation of the age of an object by measuring its radiation content
Endosymbiosis certain organelles (mitochondria & chloroplasts) originated as free-living bacteria that were taken inside another cell
Population all individuals of a species living in a specific place
Natural selection individuals who are the most “fit” will survive and pass on their traits over those “unfit” individuals
Adaptation phenotype that provides some type of survival advantage
Genetic drift is the change in the frequency of a gene (allele) in a population due to randomness
Migration The transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another
Gradualism gradual change over time
Punctuated equilibrium model of evolution that states there are periods of rapid change followed by periods of little or no change
Speciation formation of a new species
Vestigial structure structure with no function (ex. – human appendix)
Homologous structure same structure/different function…shows common ancestry(ex. Human arm & whale flipper)
Analogous structure different structure/same function(ex. the wing of a bat & butterfly) Shows convergent evolution
Convergent evolution the process of a characteristic or adaptation that evolved in two or more separate organisms independently of each other. (Ex: the wing of a bird and a butterfly.)
Taxonomy science of naming and classifying organisms
Biological species group of similar organisms that can breed with one another
Phylogeny evolutionary history
Cladistics method of analysis that reconstructs phylogenies by inferring relationships based on shared characteristics
Virus DNA or RNA wrapped in a protein coat; pathogenic
Bacteria unicellular prokaryote that contains a cell wall
Pathogen a disease causing agent
Aerobic a process requiring oxygen
Prefix “a” or “an” makes its root word opposite
Bacteriophage virus that infects bacteria
Antibiotics medicine that kills bacteria
Lytic cycle virus destroys the cell it uses to reproduce
Lysogenic cycle virus does not destroy the cell it uses to reproduce
Vaccine used to prevent viral infections/diseases; made from weakened or killed viruses, when administered it causes your immune system to create antibodies that will fight off future invasions of the same virus
Protist kingdom made up of mainly unicellular, eukaryotic organisms
Pseudopod(ia) “false” “foot”, flexible cytoplasmic extensions used by amoeba
Flagella long hair like structure that grows out of cell and helps the cell move
Cilia tightly packed rows of short flagella used for movement
Chitin type of polysaccharide found in the cell walls of fungus, the exoskeleton of insects, & the cuticles of round worms
Mycorrhizae mutualistic relationship between fungus and plants. fungus helps supply food and water to the plant while the fungus feeds on the CHO produced by the plant. Found in primitive plants
Blastula hollow ball of cells that is formed in early development in all animals
Hox genes genes that control early development in animals and specifically determine the head-to-tail pattern in animal embryos
Cephalization cluster of nerves near head region (ie. Brain)
Coelem true body cavity that is completely surrounded by mesoderm cells
Prefix “meso”- middle
Prefix “ecto”- outer
Prefix “pseudo”- false
Root word “stoma”- mouth
Prefix ‘proto’- first
Prefix ‘deutero’ second
Tissue group of similar cells working together
Epithelial tissue lining of most body surfaces
Prefix “osteo”- pertaining to bone
Cardio pertaining to the heart
Plasma the liquid portion of the blood
Digestion process of breaking down food into smaller molecules
Neuron nerve cell
Nephron tiny tubes in the kidneys
Composition the act of combining parts or elements to form a whole
Inhibit to prevent from doing something
“leuko”- prefix meaning “white”
Cuticle waxy layer of plant tissue that protects the plant and doesn’t allow water or gases through
Stoma (stomata) pores on the underside of a leaf that permit gas exchange
Guard cell specialized cells that border the stoma. They regulate when the stoma is open
Vascular plants plants with a system of tubes used to distribute water and nutrients
Phloem plant tissue that transports food
Xylem plant tissue that transports water
Seed structure that contains the plant embryo
Tropism the growing or turning of an organism in response to a stimulus
“photo”- light
Geotropism plant’s response to gravity
Germination emerge from a seed/spore and begin to grow
Dormancy to temporarily stop
Carrying capactiy the maximum number of individuals that can be supported in a habitat
Ecology study of the interactions of living and non-living things in an environment
Symbiosis long term interaction between two or more different species
Mutualism type of symbiosis where both individuals benefit
Parasitism type of symbiosis where one benefits at the other’s expense
Commensalism type of symbiosis where one benefits and the other is completely unaffected
Habitat the place where something lives
Succession progression of species replacement, can be primary-growth where no growth has ever occurred before, or secondary-growth where there has been previous growth
Trophic level the position an organism occupies in a food chain/web
Biomagnification is the increase in concentration of a substance that occurs in a food chain
Detritivore are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant and animal parts as well as organic fecal matter)
Combustion burning
Created by: devynh