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Neuroanatomy

TermDefinition
Cerebral Cortex The outermost layer of the cerebral hemisphere which is composed of gray matter. Cortices are asymmetrical. Both hemispheres are able to analyze sensory data, perform memory functions, learn new information, form thoughts and make decisions.
Limbic System Olfactory path ways, biologic rhythms, hypothalamus.
Corpus Collosum Communication between the two hemispheres.
Right Hemisphere Holistic: Processing multi-sensory input simultaneously to provide "holistic" picture of one's environment. Holistic functions such as dancing & gymnastics are coordinated by the right hemisphere. Memory is stored in auditory, visual & spatial modalities.
Left Hemisphere Sequential Analysis: systematic, logical interpretation of information. Interpretation and production of symbolic information:language, mathematics, abstraction and reasoning. Memory stored in a language format.
Parietal Lobe Processing of sensory input. Body orientation (proprioception). Language and touch.
Frontal Lobe Prefrontal area: The ability to concentrate & attend, elaboration of thought. Personality & emotional traits. Motor Cortex: voluntary motor activity. Premotor Cortex: storage of motor patterns & voluntary activities.
Occipital Lobe Primary visual reception and association.
Temporal Lobe Auditory reception and interpretation, expressed behavior, receptive speech, information retrieval.
Basal Ganglia Subcortical gray matter nuclei. Processing link between thalamus and motor cortex. Initiation and direction of voluntary movement. Balance (inhibitory), Postural reflexes. Automatic movement
Amygdala Neural centers in the limbic system linked to emotion.
Hippocampus A structure in the limbic system linked to memory.
Thalamus Relays messages between lower brain centers and cerebral cortex.
Hypothalamus Controls maintenance functions such as eating; helps govern endocrine system; linked to emotion and reward.
Pituitary Gland Master endocrine gland.
Reticular Formation Helps control arousal.
Medulla Oblongata Controls heartbeat and breathing.
Spinal Cord Pathway for neural fibers traveling to and from the brain; controls simple relfexes.
Cerebellum Coordinates voluntary movement and balance.
Pons Relays information between the cerebrum and the cerebellum, controls arousal and regulates respiration.
Brain Stem Breathing, heart rate, and temperature.
Dura Mater The outer toughest layer of the meninges.
Arachnoid Mater The web-like middle layer of the meninges.
Pia Mater The innermost layer of the meninges.
Central Sulcus a.k.a. Rolandic Fissure A prominent landmark of the brain, separating parietal lobe from frontal lobe and the primary motor cortex from the primary somatosensory cortex.
Olfactory Bulbs
Mammillary Bodies A pair of small round bodies, located on the undersurface of the brain that, as part of the diencephalon, form part of the limbic system. They consist of two groups of nuclei, the medial mammillary nuclei and the lateral mammillary nuclei. Often categoriz
Lateral Ventricle
Third Ventricle
Cerebral Aqueduct
Fourth Ventricle
Dermatomes An area of skin that is mainly supplied by a single spinal nerve. Each of these nerves relays sensation (including pain) from a particular region of skin to the brain.
Vertebral Artery
Carotid Artery Supply the anterior portion of the brain while the vertebrobasilar system supplies the posterior portion of the brain.
The Circle of Willis
Anterior Communicating Artery
Anterior Cerebral Artery
Middle Cerebral Artery
Internal Carotid Artery
Posterior Communicating Artery
Posterior Cerebral Artery
Superior Cerebellar Artery
Basilar Artery
Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery
Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery
Anterior Spinal Artery
Created by: akesselman