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Genetics

Chapter 10

TermDefinition
Genetics Scientific study of heredity
Fertilization Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to make a new cell
Trait Specific character of an individual
True-Breeding (Pure) A kind of breeding in which the parents with a particular phenotype produce offspring only with the same phenotype.
Hybird Offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
Segregation Separation of alleles during gamete formation
Independant Assortment One of Mendel's principals that states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of Gametes
Gametes Sex Cell
Homozygous Having two identical alleles for a particular gene
Hetrozygous Having two different alleles for a particular gene
Phenotype Physical Characteristics of an organism
Genotype Genetic Makeup of an Organism
Dominant The first and important allele
Recessive Carried in a person's genes without appearing in that person.
Allele One of a number of different forms of a gene
Incomplete Dominance Situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele
Codominance Situation in which the phenotypes produced by both alleles are completely expressed
Punnett Square Diagram that can be used to predict the genotype and phenotype combinations of a genetic cross
Multiple Allele Trait A trait that has more alleles in the genes
Polygenic Trait Trait controlled by two or more genes
X-Linked Trait X-linked inheritance means that the gene causing the trait or the disorder is located on the X chromosome. Females have two X chromosomes
Carrier A person or other organism that has inherited a recessive allele for a genetic trait or mutation but does not display that trait or show symptoms of the disease.
Autosome Chromosome that is not a sex chromosome, also called autosomal chromosome
Created by: SaraRichardson1