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Mammalogy lab part 2

Mammal diversity

O: Rodentia, F: Cricetidae, White-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus, lower peninsula and parts central UP
O: Rodentia, F: Cricetidae, Deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus, statewide, very thin translucent skull, bicolored tail
O: Rodentia, F: Cricetidae, Southern red-backed vole Myodes gapperi, UP and northern LP, chestnut stripe on back, shorter tail than mouse
O: Rodentia, F: Cricetidae, Meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus, statewide, rectangular skull
O: Rodentia, F: Cricetidae, Woodland vole Microtus pinetorum, LP
O: Rodentia, F: Cricetidae, Tundra vole Microtus oeconomus, not in MI, large and dull colors
O: Rodentia, F: Cricetidae, Muskrat Odontra zibethicus, statewide, dark brown tips of hair, re/brown underneath, "crazy teeth", orange incisors, flat skull, rectangular skull, long rostrum, flare zygomatic arch, tail laterally compressed, hind feet partially webbed, stiff hairs on feet
O: Rodentia, F: Cricetidae, Southern bog lemming Synaptomys cooperi, statewide, vole-like, short tail, out-competed by meadow vole
O: Rodentia, F: Muridae, House mouse Mus musculus, statewide, nonnative, point snout, short-tail, sparsley haired tail, knotched incisors distal end, multicolored tiny skull
O: Rodentia, F: Muridae, Norway rat Rattus norvegicus, statewide, long skull, long rostrum, prominent temporal ridge, big, naked tail, ugly skull
O: Rodentia, F: Dipodidae, Woodland jumping mouse Napeozapus insignis, UP and northern 1/4 of LP, large hind feet, tip of tail white
O: Rodentia, F: Dipodidae, Meadow jumping mouse Zapus hudsonius, statewide, yellowish/brown sides, dark back, long straight tail, white belly, large hind feet, not as brightly colored as woodland
O: Rodentia, F: Erethizontidae, Porcupine Erethizon dorsatum, UP and north 1/2 of LP, orange incisors, thin orbits, prominent temporal ridges, infraorbital foramen very large, no elongated auditory meatus
O: Lagomorpha, F: Leporidae, eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus, statewide except east 1/2 of UP, netted pattern side of skull, long rostrum, large circular orbitals, postorbital process very close to skull
O: Lagomorpha, F: Leporidae, snowshoe hare Lepus americanus, UP and north 1/2 LP, flared post orbital process
O: Cingulata, F: Dasypodidae, nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus, not in MI, long thin snout
O: Rodentia, F: Sciuridae, least chipmunk Tamias minimus, UP only, 4 white stripes, very small gray skull and translucent skull, stripes to the base of tail, less than 34mm, 5 upper cheek teeth
O: Rodentia, F: Sciuridae, eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus, statewide, 2 white stripes, stripes to anterior of tail, greater than 34mm, 4 upper cheek teeth
O: Rodentia, F: Sciuridae, woodchuck Marmota monax, statewide, small skull, flat skull, large incisors top/bottom, not as heavy as beaver, skulls concave on top, posterior edge of postorbital process perpendicular to skull, occipital region flat and vertical
O: Rodentia, F: Sciuridae, thirteen-lined ground squirrel Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, LP and western UP, spots in stripes, 5 upper cheek teeth, front incisors yellow, skull less than 40mm
O: Rodentia, F: Sciuridae, Eastern gray squirrel Sciurus carolinensis, statewide, dark gray squirrel, 5 upper cheek teeth (1st small), skull less than 60mm
O: Rodentia, F: Sciuridae, Eastern fox squirrel Sciurus niger, LP and parts of east and central UP, red with gray backs, thick but shorter incisors, 4 upper cheek teeth, skull greater than 60mm
O: Rodentia, F: Sciuridae, red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, statewide, very red stripe down back, short rostrum, non-tapered skull between 40 and 50mm, auditory bullae 3 visible divisions
O: Rodentia, F: Sciuridae, northern flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus, UP and north 1/2 LP, reddish brown, thinner/translucent skull, belly gray at bases, front incisors orange, auditory bullae has 2 visible divisions, small and highly arched skull, 5 upper cheek teeth
O: Rodentia, F: Sciuridae, southern flying squirrel Glaucomys volans, LP and west central UP, have more grey with brown, thicker skull, white belly at base, 5 upper cheek teeth, skull narrow interorbital region
O: Rodentia, F: Castoridae, american beaver Castor canadensis, statewide, very strong and heavy skull, complete orbital, flat skull, infraorbital foramen smaller than foramen magnum, tubular external auditory meatus
Round-tailed ground squirrel Spermophilus tereticaudus, creosote bush habitat
Prairie dog Cynomys ludovicianus
White-throated wood rat Neotoma albigula, creosote bush habitat
Desert wood rat Neotoma lepida
Desert kangaroo rat Dipodomys deserti, sand dunes habitat
Merriam's kangaroo rat Dipodomys merriami, creosote bush habitat
Ord's kangaroo rat Dipodomys ordii, sparse vegetation over sandy ground in Great Plains
California mouse Peromyscus californicus, like a big P. maniculatus
Deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus, like eastern species but lighter color
Cactus mouse Peromyscus eremicus, found in hot dry brushy areas, tail not distinctly bicolored
Bairds pocket gopher Geomys breviceps
Douglas squirrel Tamiasciurus douglasii, coniferous forests along Pacific Coast
O: Perrissodactyla, F: Equidae, horse Equus caballus
O: Artiodactyla, F: Antilocapridae, pronghorn Antilocapra americana, West-central US
O: Artiodactyla, F: Cervidae, elk or wapiti Cervus elaphus, Northern LP, many western states/provinces, medium antlers oriented on top of head
O: Artiodactyla, F: Cervidae, white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, statewide, no black tip on tail, simple antlers
O: Artiodactyla, F: Cervidae, mule deer Odocoileus hemionus, western US, branched antlers, black tip on tail
O: Artiodactyla, F: Cervidae, moose Alces alces, UP and Isle Royale, some western states and Alaska; broad distribution in Canada, extra large bump between antlers, antlers set to side, largest skull besides horse
O: Artiodactyla, F: Cervidae, caribou Rangifer tarandus, boreal forest and tundra, smallest skull (of moose, elk or caribou), wideset eyes, dip in skull, wideset snout
O: Artiodactyla, F: Bovidae, domestic cattle Bos taurus, flat skull
O: Artiodactyla, F: Bovidae, bison Bison bison, various west-central states and provinces
O: Artiodactyla, F: Bovidae, mountain goat Oreamnos americanus, NW US, W Canada
O: Artiodactyla, F: Bovidae, bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis, isolated spots in west US, thick point horns, brown
O: Artiodactyla, F: Bovidae, dall sheep Ovis dalli, Alaska, Western Canada, horns come to thin point, white
O: Artiodactyla, F: Bovidae, cape buffalo sea level to mountains, generally likes dense cover
O: Artiodactyla, F: Bovidae, sable antelope savannah and grasslands, antlers curve straight back
O: Artiodactyla, F: Bovidae, greater kudu variety of habitats that provide thick cover, curly antlers black neck stripe
O: Artiodactyla, F: Bovidae, waterbuck grasslands close to water, very light fur very ridged antlers
O: Artiodactyla, F: Bovidae, nyala thickets in dry savannah woodland near grasslands and water, slight curl horns tan spots
O: Artiodactyla, F: Bovidae, red duiker thick brush, tiny
O: Artiodactyla, F: Bovidae, red hartebeest edges of open plains, thin skull short curl horns
O: Artiodactyla, F: Bovidae, reedbuck grasslands and wide plains, like tall grass, horns curve forward, tan
O: Artiodactyla, F: Bovidae, bushbuck forest edges, brush cover along streams, feed in openings at night, slight curve horns, white face spots
O: Artiodactyla, F: Bovidae, oribi tropical scrub forest, savannah and grasslands, tiny horns
O: Artiodactyla, F: Bovidae, gray duiker see red duiker, shorter neck, no spot under ears
O: Artiodactyla, F: Bovidae, impala woodlands with little undergrowth and grasslands, small skull ridge curl horns
local mammal true hibernator thirteen-lined ground squirrel puts on extra fat prior to winter, body temp drops from 37-3 degrees celcius, heartbeat drops from 200-350 bpm to 5bpm so survives 1/100th of normal food supply
deer adaptations to winter decrease in metabolic rate from january to february, and eat woody vegetation (shoots are soft)->show raggid bite
snowshow hare adaptations to winter use runways, bits of low vegetation show clean cut
track difference between gray and red squirrels greater than 5in in gray, less than 5in in red, tracks two small front feet next to each other with two large back feet next to each other behind
mustelid tracks two large front feet parallel in front of two large back feet behind
deer mouse tracks two small front feet parallel in front of two large back feet parallel behind with tail drag behind
snowshoe hare tracks two small front feet slightly misaligned behind two large back feet almost parallel
deer tracks long toes in front of two small holes behind, normal walking pattern
Created by: jebeard