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Genetics

Chapter 11

TermDefinition
Genetics scientific study of heredity
Fertilization Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
Trait specific characteristic of an individual
True-Breeding (Pure) same as phenotype
Hybrid offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
Segregation separation of alleles during gamete formation
Independent Assortment one of Mendel's principles that states that genes for different traits can segregation independently during the formation of gametes
Gametes sex cell
Homozygous having two identical alleles for a particular gene
Heterozygous having two different alleles for a particular gene
Phenotype physical characteristics of an organism
Genotype genetic makeup of an organism
Dominant The first allele, also a gene choice that masks other choice of traits
Recessive The second allele, also a gene choice that is masked by anther choice of traits
Allele One of a number of different forms of a gene
Incomplete Dominance situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another cell
Codominance situation in which the phenotypes produced by both alleles are completely expressed
Punnett Square diagram that can be used to predict the genotype and phenotype combinations of a genetic cross
Multiple Allele trait a series of three or more alternative or allelic forms of a gene, only two of which can exist in any normal, diploid individual.
Polygenic Trait trait controlled by two or more genes
X-Linked Trait That the gene causing the trait of disorder is on the x chromosome
Carrier A heterozygous individual bearing an unexpressed defective gene
Autosome Chromosomes that is not a sex chromosome: also called autosomal chromosome
Created by: abigo