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EMS Chapter27 Chest

Emergency Care & Transp. 10th Edition 2011 Jones & Bartlett

TermDefinition
cardiac tamponade (pericardial tamponade) Compression of the heart as the result of buildup of blood or other fluid in the pericardial sac, leading to decreased cardiac output.
closed chest injury An injury to the chest in which the skin is not broken, usually caused by blunt trauma.
commotio cordis A blunt chest injury caused by a sudden, direct blow to the chest that occurs only during the critical portion of a person's heartbeat.
flail chest A condition in which two or more ribs are fractured in two or more places or in association with a fracture of the sternum so that a segment of the chest wall is effectively detached from the rest of the thoracic cage.
flutter valve A one-way valve that allows air to leave the chest cavity but not return; formed by taping three sides of an occlusive dressing to the chest wall, leaving the fourth side open as a valve.
hemopneumothorax The accumulation of blood and air in the pleural space of the chest.
hemothorax A collection of blood in the pleural cavity.
myocardial contusion A bruise of the heart muscle.
occlusive dressing A dressing made of Vaseline-impregnated gauze, aluminum foil, or plastic that protects a wound from air and bacteria.
open chest injury An injury to the chest in which the chest wall itself is penetrated by a fractured rib or, more frequently, by an external object such as a bullet or knife.
open pneumothorax An open or penetrating chest wall wound through which air passes during inspiration and expiration, creating a sucking sound; also referred to as a sucking chest wound.
paradoxical motion The motion of the portion of the chest wall that is detached in a flail chest; the motion—in during inhalation, out during exhalation—is exactly the opposite of normal chest wall motion during breathing.
pericardium The fibrous sac that surrounds the heart.
pneumothorax A partial or complete accumulation of air in the pleural space.
pulmonary contusion Injury or bruising of lung tissue that results in hemorrhage.
simple pneumothorax Any pneumothorax that is free from significant physiologic changes and does not cause drastic changes in the vital signs of the patient.
spontaneous pneumothorax A pneumothorax that occurs when a weak area on the lung ruptures in the absence of major injury, allowing air to leak into the pleural space.
sucking chest wound An open or penetrating chest wall wound through which air passes during inspiration and expiration, creating a sucking sound. See also open pneumothorax.
tachypnea Increased respiratory rate.
tension pneumothorax A life-threatening collection of air within the pleural space; the volume and pressure have both collasped the involved lung and caused a shift of the mediastinal structures to the opposite side.
traumatic asphyxia A pattern of injuries seen after a severe force is applied to the chest, forcing blood from the great vessels back into the head and neck.
Created by: Liwa91