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EMS Chapter26 Head&S

Emergency Care & Transp. 10th Edition 2011 Jones & Bartlett

anterograde (posttraumatic) amnesia Inability to remember events after an injury.
basilar skull fractures Usually occur following diffuse impact to the head (such as falls, motor vehicle crashes); generally result from extension of a linear fracture to the base of the skull and can be difficult to diagnose with a radiograph (x-ray).
Battle's sign Bruising behind an ear over the mastoid process that may indicate a skull fracture.
cerebral edema Swelling of the brain.
closed head injury Injury in which the brain has been injured but the skin has not been broken and there is no obvious bleeding.
concussion A temporary loss or alteration of part or all of the brain's abilities to function without actual physical damage to the brain.
connecting nerves Nerves in the spinal cord that connect the motor and sensory nerves.
coup-contrecoup injury Dual impacting of the brain into the skull; coup injury occurs at the point of impact; contrecoup injury occurs on the opposite side of impact, as the brain rebounds.
distraction The action of pulling the spine along its length.
epidural hematoma An accumulation of blood between the skull and the dura mater.
eyes-forward position A head position in which the patient's eyes are looking straight ahead and the head and torso are in line.
four-person log roll The recommended procedure for moving a patient with a suspected spinal injury from the ground to a long backboard.
intervertebral disk The cushion that lies between two vertebrae.
intracerebral hematoma Bleeding within the brain tissue (parenchyma) itself; also referred to as an intraparenchymal hematoma.
intracranial pressure (ICP) The pressure within the cranial vault.
involuntary activities Actions of the body that are not under a person's conscious control.
linear skull fractures Account for 80% of skull fractures; also referred to as nondisplaced skull fractures; commonly occur in the temporal-parietal region of the skull; not associated with deformities to the skull.
meninges Three distinct layers of tissue that surround and protect the brain and the spinal cord within the skull and the spinal canal.
open head injury Injury to the head often caused by a penetrating object in which there may be bleeding and exposed brain tissue.
primary (direct) injury An injury to the brain and its associated structures that is a direct result of impact to the head.
raccoon eyes Bruising under the eyes that may indicate a skull fracture.
retrograde amnesia The inability to remember events leading up to a head injury.
secondary (indirect) injury The "after effects" of the primary injury; includes abnormal processes such as cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, cerebral ischemia and hypoxia, and infection; onset is often delayed following the primary brain injury.
subarachnoid hemorrhage Bleeding into the subarachnoid space, where the cerebrospinal fluid circulates.
subdural hematoma An accumulation of blood beneath the dura mater but outside the brain.
subluxation A partial or incomplete dislocation.
traumatic brain injury (TBI) A traumatic insult to the brain capable of producing physical, intellectual, emotional, social, and vocational changes.
voluntary activities Actions that we consciously perform, in which sensory input or conscious thought determines a specific muscular activity.
Created by: Liwa91