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Cardio

Cardio conditions and drugs

QuestionAnswer
digoxin (Lanoxin) Cardiac glucoside/Inotrope - treats chronic HF Slows rate of ventricular contraction (a-fib, a-flutter); allows for fewer but more efficient contractions; HOLD IF APICAL PULSE <60
furosemide (Lasix) Loop diuretic - treats mod to severe HF Used when rapid effects needed Reduces edema→pulls off fluid; Daily weight, I&O; Electrolytes monitored→K+ wasting
spironolactone (Aldactone) Potassium-sparing diuretic - treats advanced HF with inadequate renal function Reduces ascites, edema(→pulls off fluid), hypokalemia, HTN, and hyperaldosteronism; Daily weight, I&O;
hydrochlorothiazide (Esidrix, Oretic) Thiazide diuretic - treats early or mild HF Reduces edema→pulls off fluid, aldosterone antagonist Assess for adventitious lung sounds, heart for S3, and peripheral edema; Electrolytes, fluid status, daily weight (>2 lb/24 hours)
propranolol hydrochloride (Inderal) Beta-blockers ("Lols") - treats chronic HF Slows HR (atrial flutter, atrial fib, pervent v-fib); decreases excitability of heart, cardiac workload, oxygen consumption; SIDE EFFECT: DRY COUGH→caution in asthmatics
enalapril maleate (Vasotec) ACE Inhibitors ("Prils") - treats HF, HTN, asymptomatic L ventricular dysfunction, and acute coronary syndrome/MI Promotes vasodilation (decreasing BP); decreases aldosterone secretion (increasing K+ and reducing Na+ and H2O retention)
valsartan (Diovan) only ARB with FDA approval for HF losartan potassium (Cozaar) Angiotensin II-receptor blocker (ARB) - treats mod to severe HF Blocks vasoconstriction effect of renin-angiotensin→decrease in BP HOLD IF BP IS LOW
milrinone lactate (Primacor) Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (cardiotonic-inotropic agents) - treats acute to severe HF Increases the force of myocardial contraction; used for pts who do not respond to routine pharm therapy; reserved for those with severe ventricular dysfunction
dobutamine hydrochloride (Dobutrex) Selective Beta-1 adrenergic agonist - treats acute to severe CHF, cardiac decompensation, shock, Angina pectoris Usually used with milrinone lactate for treatment of HF
atorvistatin (Lipitor) rosuvastatin (Crestor) simvistatin (Zocor) HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) - treats CAD Blocks production of cholesterol in liver Must monitor liver enzymes
niacin (Nicolar) Nicotinic acid (vitamin) - treats CAD Lowers LDL and increases HDL
cholestyramine (Questran) Bile acid resin - treats CAD Binds bile from the liver and prevents it from being reabsorbed into the circulatory system; bile is made mostly from cholesterol Constipation, gas and upset stomach
fenofibrate (Tricor) Fibrate - treats CAD Reduces the production of triglycerides and can increase HDL cholesterol
nitroglycerin (Nitro-bind, Nitro-Dur) Nitrate - treats angina pectoris Potent vasodilator: venous→↓ venous pressure, return to heart, preload; coronary artery→↑ blood flow to ischemic areas of heart; Arteriole→ ↓afterload (↓BP, cardiac workload), DO NOT USE w/ Viagra
diltiazem (Cardizem) Calcium channel blocker - treats angina pectoris, tachycardia Block calcium from entering myocardial cells→slows conduction through SA and AV nodes to ↓HR Assess for bradycardia before and after
clopidogrel (Plavix) Antiplatelet - treats angina pectoris Decreases platelets "sticking together"
heparin, warfarin (Coumadin) Anticoagulants - treats angina pectoris Reduces viscosity of blood to reduce risk of clots Bleeding risk, need to monitor blood levels (labs)
MONA Morphine, oxygen, nitro, aspirin (given in ED) Treats acute coronary syndrome/MI
Heart Failure Medications digoxin (Lanoxin) cardiac glycoside/inotrope;diuretics= loop=furosemide(Lasix); K+sparing spirolactone( Aldactone); thiazide hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ); Beta blockers(Lols); ACE inhibitors(Prils); ARBs; milrinone; dobutamine
Coronary artery disease Medications Statins; Niacin; Bile acid resins; Fibrates
Angina pectoris Medications Nitrates (nitro); Beta-blockers (Lols); Calcium channel blockers; Antiplatelets; Anticoagulants
Acute Coronary Syndrome/MI Medications MONA (morphine, oxygen, nitro, aspirin) in ED; ACE inhibitors (Prils)
Pulmonary edema Medications Diuretics and vasodilators (nitro)
Cardiogenic shock Medications Diuretics, digoxin, vasopressors (dobutamine)→raise BP by constricting blood vessels
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) Need to improve circulation in extremities→vasodilators, antiplatelet, anticoagulant, statins (reduce cholesterol and plaque accumulation)
Hypertension Medications Diuretics, Beta-blockers, vasodilators, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, calcium channel blockers Want to ↓ blood volume (diuretics), control HR, and maximize efficiency of contractions. START WITH LOW DOSES,↑GRADUALLY IF NEEDED. Pair drugs with lifestyle changes
Created by: kscott59