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Genetics

Chapter 10

TermDefinition
Genetics Scientific study of heredity.
Fertilization The process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to forma new cell.
Trait A specific characteristic of an individual.
True-Breeding (Pure Breeding) (Homozygous) Having two identical alleles for a particular gene.
Hybrid The offspring of crosses between parents with different traits.
Segregation The separation of alleles during gamete formation.
Independent Assortment One of Mendel's principles that states that genes for different traits that can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.
Gametes Sex Cells.
Homozygous Having two identical alleles for a particular gene.
Heterozygous Having two different alleles for a particular gene.
Phenotype The physical characteristics of an organism.
Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism.
Dominant An allele that hides the presence of another allele.
Recessive An allele that is hidden by the presence of another allele.
Allele One of a number of different forms of a gene.
Incomplete Dominance A situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele.
Codominance A situation in which the phenotype produced by both alleles are completely expressed.
Punnett Square A diagram that can be used to predict the genotype and phenotype combinations of a genetic cross.
Multiple Allele Trait A gene that has more than two alleles.
Polygenic Trait A trait controlled by two or more genes.
Sex-linked Trait The gene located on a sex chromosome.
Carrier
Autosome A chromosome that is not a sex chromosome; also called autosomal chromosome.
Created by: leclearc