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Geology Vocabulary

5th Period Science flashcards on geology.

Atmosphere A mixture of gases that surrounds Earth: 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other gases, including carbon dioxide and water vapor.
Biosphere The whole area of Earth where life exists; made up of land (lithosphere), water(hydrosphere), and air (atmosphere).
Lithosphere The hard, outer most layer of Earth; made up of the crust and the hard, upper part of the mantle.
Hydrosphere The surface waters of Earth and the water vapor in the atmosphere.
Tectonic Plates Large slabs of lithosphere that move around on the asthenosphere (upper mantle).
Stress Amount of force per unit area that is put on a given material.
Compression The type of stress in which an object is squeezed, as when tectonic plates collide.
Tension The type of stress in which forces act to stretch an object, as when tectonic plates pull away from each other.
Folding The bending of rock layers due to stress in Earth’s crust (3 types: anticline, syncline, monocline).
Faulting When Earth’s crust breaks and the blocks of crust slide past each other (3 types: normal, reverse, strike-slip).
Uplift The process by which regions of Earth’s crust are raised to a higher elevation.
Volcanism (Volcanic Mountains) Mountains form when molten rock erupts onto Earth’s surface, adding material to Earth’s surface.
Rock Cycle The continual process by which new rock is formed rorm old rock material.
Weathering The process by which water, ice, heat, and wind act to break down rocks.
Erosion The process by which particles of rock are removed from their source; the removal and transport of rock and soil by the flow of water and by the actions of gravity, wind and ice.
Deposition The process in which water, ice, wind and gravity drop newly formed sediments.
Rock A solid mixture of crystals of one or more minerals.
Mineral A naturally formed solid material with a crystal structure; has unique physical properties such as color, hardness, luster, and streak.
Igneous Rocks Forms when hot liquid rock cools and hardens.
Sedimentary Rocks Forms when rocks are broken down into smaller pieces (sediment) harden into new rock.
Metamorphic Rocks Forms when rock is heated and /or squeezed.
Created by: caperton_907914