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SLS Reprod. LM

Reproductive System

TermDefinition
Acrosome A caplike structure at the anterior end of a spermatozoon that produces enzymes aiding in egg penetration
Anterior Pituitary Controls hormone activity
Cervix the lower end of the womb (uterus). It is at the top of the vagina.
Clitoris Female sex organ
Corpus Luteum The stuff left over from the follicle
Cowper's Glands one of two small structures about the size of peas, which is located below the prostate gland. secretes a fluid that is released in response to sexual stimulation to provide some lubrication to the end of the penis in preparation for sexual intercourse
Ductus (vas) Deferens these vasa transport sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts in anticipation of ejaculation.
Endometrium a single layer of columnar epithelium resting on the stroma, a layer of connective tissue that varies in thickness according to hormonal influences.
Epididymis a single, narrow, tightly-coiled tube (in adult humans, six to seven centi-meters in length[1]) connecting the efferent ducts from the rear of each testicle to its vas deferens.
Estrogen the primary female sex hormones
Follicles the basic units of female reproductive biology, each of which is composed of roughly spherical aggregations of cells found in the ovary. They contain a single oocyte (immature ovum or egg).
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) synthesized and secreted by gonadotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland.[1] FSH regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation and reproductive processes of the body
Follicular Phase the phase of the estrous cycle, (or, in humans and great apes, the menstrual cycle) during which follicles in the ovary mature. It ends with ovulation
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) a trophic peptide hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary. GnRH is synthesized and released from neurons within the hypothalamus
Head The end of the penis
Homeostatic Regulation the property of a system in which variables are regulated so that internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant.
Human CHorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) a hormone produced by the syncytiotrophoblast, a component of the fertilized egg, after conception.
Hypothalamus the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland
Implantation implantation is the very early stage of pregnancy at which the conceptus adheres to the wall of the uterus
Interstitial Cells different types of cells that are responsible for the pituitary gland to produce the male sex hormone
Luteal Phase the latter phase of the menstrual cycle.It begins with the formation of the corpus luteum and ends in either pregnancy or luteolysis
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) produced by gonadotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland.In females, an acute rise of LH triggers ovulation and development of the corpus luteum. In males, it stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone
Menstruation All women know what this is.
Midpiece The part of a spermatozoon between the head and the tail; it consists of mitochondria, centrioles, and an axoneme
Ovarian Cycle the cycle of natural changes that occurs in the uterus and ovary as an essential part of making sexual reproduction possible.[1][2] Its timing is governed by endogenous (internal) biological cycles.
Ovaries an ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system.
Oviducts (fallopian tubes) the passageway from the ovaries to the outside of the body is known as the oviduct (or Fallopian tube)
Ovulation The follicles rupturing and releasing the ovarian cells
Oxytocin Neurotransmitter released in large amounts during labor, facilitating birth, maternal bonding, and, after stimulation of the nipples, lactation. Both childbirth and milk ejection result from positive feedback mechanisms.
Penis Male sex organ
Positive feedback mechanism a process in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.
Progesterone female hormone produced by the ovaries during release of a mature egg from an ovary (ovulation). Progesterone helps prepare the lining of the uterus (endometrium) to receive the egg if it becomes fertilized by a sperm.
Proliferative Phase the phase of the menstrual cycle after menstruation. Under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary, the ovary produces increasing amounts of estrogen, causing the lining of the uterus to become dense and richly vascular.
Prostate Gland secretes fluid that nourishes and protects sperm. During ejaculation, the prostate squeezes this fluid into the urethra, and it’s expelled with sperm as semen.
Scrotum a dual-chambered protuberance of skin and muscle, that contains the testicles and is divided by a septum.
Secretory Phase the second half of the menstrual cycle after ovulation; the corpus luteum secretes progesterone which prepares the endometrium for the implantation of an embryo; if fertilization does not occur then menstrual flow begins
Seminal Fluid Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa. It is secreted by the gonads (sexual glands)
Seminal Vesicles a pair of simple tubular glands posteroinferior to the urinary bladder of some male mammals.
Seminiferous Tubules a pair of simple tubular glands posteroinferior to the urinary bladder of some male mammals.
Sperm the male reproductive cells
Tail (flagellum) The latter end of the sperm
Testes Where the sperm is stored
Testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as the testis and prostate as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle, bone mass, and the growth of body hair.[
Urethra a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the genitals for the removal of fluids from the body a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the genitals for the removal of fluids from the body
Urethral Opening the external opening of the urethra, from which urine is ejected during urination
Uterine Cycle The cycle of menstration
Uterus a female reproductive organ located between the bladder and the rectum, in the pelvic area
Vagina a fibromuscular elastic tubular tract (passage) which is a sex organ and mainly functions for the facilitation of sexual intercourse and childbirth.
Created by: LMKay