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Respiratory

Physiology (Test 3)

QuestionAnswer
What is the main muscle of inspiration? diaphragm
What type of muscle is the diaphragm? skeletal muscle
The diaphragm (ascends or descends?) during inspiration. descends
What muscles (besides the diaphragm) are used during inspiration? external intercostals (cause the ribs to flair apart) and scalene muscles (lift the upper part of the ribs during passive inspiration)
When muscles of inspiration contract, the volume of the pleural cavity (increases or decreases?) increases
What is the primary muscle of passive expiration? there isn't one-- just recoil (relaxation) of muscles of inspiration
What are secondary muscles of expiration? internal intercostals (pulls ribs together), and rectus abdominis muscle (pushes viscera up, forcing out more air)
Lung volume (increases or decreases?) with inspiration. With expiration? increases w/ inspiration; decreases w/ expiration
True or False: At rest, alveolar pressure is at atmospheric pressure. True
At rest, the pleural cavity pressure is (higher or lower?) than atmospheric pressure. lower (-5 or -6 cmH2O)
What creates the pleural vacuum? the thoracic walls have a tendency to be expanded outward, and the lungs have a tendency to want to collapse inward; this pull in opposite directions is responsible for creating the vacuum
When we inhale, we are (increasing or decreasing?) the volume of the pleural cavity and (increasing or decreasing?) the pressure. increasing the volume; decreasing the pressure (from -5 or -6 to -7 or -8)
Due to the decreasing pressure in the pleural cavity, the lungs respond by (expanding or collapsing?) expanding-- so air is pulled in from the upper airways (b/c atmospheric pressure > pressure in lungs)
Define tidal volume. ______mL the volume of air that goes and comes as we breathe normally (healthy lungs=500mL)
Define inspiratory reserve volume. the total amount inhaled forcefully as much as you can (the amount above tidal volume)
Define expiratory reserve volume. the total amount exhaled forcefully as much as you can (the amount below tidal volume)
Define vital capacity. tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume
Define residual volume. the volume not at your exposal
What are the 2 types of alveolar cells in the lungs? 1) simple squamous cells 2) quboidal cells
What is the purpose of simple squamous alveolar cells? allow for gas exchange in and out of the alveoli
What is the purpose of the quboidal alveolar cells? produce surfactant
True or False: Quboidal alveolar cells are too thick to allow gases to diffuse. True
Define surfactant. chemical that can lower surface tension of water
What is the purpose of surfactant? allows alveoli to open successfully w/o surface tension of water
The Type I (simple squamous) and Type II (quboidal) alveolar cells are glued to a ____________________ that meets right up with the capillary endothelium. basement membrane
The space between adjoining alveoli is called the _________________. interstitial space
What 3 things are found in the interstitial space between alveoli? 1)collagen, 2)elastin, 3)capillaries
What is the purpose of the collagen in the interstitial space between alveoli? connective tissue that helps alveoli hold their shape
What is the purpose of the elastin in the interstitial space between alveoli? connective tissue that gives elasticity to interstitia (allows alveoli to inflate and deflate)
What is the purpose of the capillaries found in the interstitial space between alveoli? allows diffusion of O2 and CO2
What are 5 examples of obstructive disorders? COPD, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, bronchiectasis
Define "obstructive disorders". the amount of air you breathe in and out is reduced
Define "restrictive disorders." something has injured the interstitial space, causing damage. Fibrocytes more in and lay down massive amounts of collagen (scarring/fibrosis)
What is an example of a restrictive disorder? pulmonary interstitial fibrosis
Restrictive diseases cause what 2 problems? 1)restricts alveoli (can't inflate properly), 2)prevents effective diffusion of gases
What test can diagnose obstructive vs. restrictive disease? FEV1/FVC Test
What is FEV1? forced expiratory volume in 1 sec
What is FVC? forced vital capacity (total)
What is a normal FEV1/FVC ratio? 0.8 or greater
Describe the tracheobronchial tree from large to small. large bronchi --> small bronchi --> bronchioles --> terminal bronchioles --> respiratory bronchioles --> alveolar ducts --> alveolar sacs
What part of the tracheobronchial tree is the first place you see a few alveoli and gas exchange? respiratory bronchioles
What part of the tracheobronchial tree is where most gas exchange occurs? alveolar sacs
Where is the lower level respiratory defense system located? cells in the alveoli
What are the 2 cell types of the lower level respiratory defense system? 1)neutrophils, 2)monocytes
Which cell type (neutrophils or monocytes?) are the hallmark of chronic inflammation? monocytes
Which cell type (neutrophils or monocytes?) are the hallmark of acute inflammation? neutrophils
Which cell type (neutrophils or monocyes?) are only affective on living things? both! (neither neutrophils or monocytes are able to destroy minerals like asbestos, coal dust, silica, etc)
Define neutrophil. highly phagocytic WBC (hallmark of acute inflammation)
Where is the upper level respiratory defense system located? lining of trachea/bronchi
What 2 cells types are part of the upper level respiratory defense system? 1)columnar cells, 2)goblet cells
What is the function of goblet cells? produce mucus
How does the upper level respiratory defense system rid the airway of debris? if you inhale dust, the goblet cells deposit a layer of mucus which catches the dust. The cilia of the columnar cells wave the dust up and out and it ends up being swallowed.
What is the nickname for the way the upper level respiratory defense system? mucu-ciliary escalator
How does smoking disrupt the upper level respiratory defense system? Smoking causes the tall columnar ciliary cells to be replaced with squamous cells. The goblet cells remain. Things that get trapped by the mucus can't get moved up d/t lack of cilia. Thus, smokers' cough.
Which cells of the upper level respiratory defense system to we need to shut down to "dry" the airway during anesthesia? goblet cells
Define clara cells. Special cells, only found in lower bronchioles, that provide protection against inhaled gases/vapors/chemicals
Clara cells contain __________ enzymes. CP450
Who are Clara cells named after? doctor in Nazi concentration camp
What part of the tracheobronchial tree is dead space? from the terminal bronchioles and up (large and small bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles)
What part of the tracheobronchial tree is considered the gas exchange division? from the respiratory bronchioles and down (respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveolar sacs)
Where is the major respiratory center located? medulla
What are the names of the 2 respiratory neural groups contained in the medulla? 1)dorsal respiratory group, 2)ventral respiratory group
Describe the action of the dorsal respiratory group. sends neurons down to spinal cord, that impinge on motor nerves that run out to the respiratory skeletal muscles (ex. phrenic nerve)
What nerve controls the diaphragm? phrenic nerve (part of the dorsal respiratory group)
The signal sent by the dorsal respiratory group lasts _________. 1-2 seconds
What is the purpose of the short signal length sent by the dorsal respiratory group? allows for muscle recoil; keeps a normal respiratory rate of ~12 breaths per min
Describe the action of the dorsal respiratory group. mostly inactive during normal, quiet breathing. Can activate the secondary expiratory muscles
Where is the pons located in relation to the medulla? above the medulla
What 2 respiratory centers are located in the pons? 1)apneustic center, 2)pneumotaxic center
What happens if the apneustic center is stimulated? stops breathing
What happens if the pneumotaxic center is stimulated? takes one big inhalation and holds it in
What is the main common purpose of the apneustic and pneutaxic centers? help evenly space the 12 breaths per minute initiated by the dorsal respiratory group in the medulla
What are chemoreceptors? receptors sensitive to chemicals in our blood
Where are the central respiratory chemoreceptors located? chemosensitive area in medulla
Where are the peripheral respiratory chemoreceptors located? arch of aorta and carotid bodies
These respiratory chemoreceptors are sensitive to what 3 things? 1)PO2, 2)PCO2, 3)pH
Which of these (PO2, PCO2, or pH?) affects respiration the least? PO2
Which of these (PO2, PCO2, or pH?) affects respiration the most? PCO2
True or False: pH is functionally equivalent to PCO2? True
How do respiratory chemoreceptor alter our breathing? tell us when we need to breathe faster and deeper
What changes in PO2, PCO2, and pH would require faster, deeper breaths? dec. in PO2, inc. in PCO2, dec. in pH
What is the equation that represents gas exchange? CO2 + H20 <--> H2CO3 --> H+ + HCO3-
What enzyme causes CO2 and H2O to combine or break apart? carbonic anhydrase
What enzyme causes the breakdown of H2CO3 into H+ and HCO3- no enzyme is required
If CO2 rises, the equation swings to the (right or left?) and forms more __________. swings to the right; more H+
If H+ rises, the equation swings to the (right or left?) and forms more __________. swings to the left; more CO2
What is the concentration of O2 (PO2) in the blood when we go into the lungs (pulmonary arteries)? 40mmHg
What is the concentration of O2 in the alveoli? 104 mmHg
What is the concentration of O2 (PO2) in the blood when we leave the lungs (pulmonary veins)? 104 mmHg
What is the concentration of CO2 (PCO2) in the blood when we go into the lungs (pulmonary arteries)? 45 mmHg
What is the concentration of CO2 in the alveoli? 40 mmHg
What is the concentration of CO2 (PCO2) in the blood when we leave the lungs (pulmonary veins)? 40 mmHg
What does the "P" in PO2 or PCO2 stand for? partial pressure
What is the easiest way to determine the concentration of a gas? by the pressure it exerts
Explain the law of partial pressures. In a mixture of gases in a container, each gas exerts its own partial pressure. The total pressure in the container is the sum of all of the partial pressures.
How does O2 travel in the blood? 97-98% is transported bound to hemoglobin; 2-3% is dissolved in the plasma
Each hemoglobin molecule has ______ subunits. 4
Each subunit of hemoglobin is made up of ... 1 heme group bound to a globin
Each heme group contains ______________. an Fe2+ iron molecule
What does the iron molecule on the heme group have to be Fe2+? in order for O2 to bind
What type of bond holds the O2 to the Fe2+? Why this type of bond? a loose physiochemical bond; allows the O2 to come off readily when needed
Each globin is made of... 2 alpha chains and 2 beta chains
How many O2 molecules can each hemoglobin carry? 4 (1 per heme group)
How much hemoglobin do you have in your body (per dL)? 15 g/dL
How much O2 (in mL) can each g of hemoglobin carry? 1.34 mL
Name the 5 possible forms of hemoglobin. 1)oxyhemoglobin, 2)deoxyhemoglobin, 3)carb-aminohemoglobin, 4)met-hemoglobin, 5)carboxyhemoglobin
Define oxyhemoglobin. a hemoglobin molecule that has been oxygenated
Define deoxyhemoglobin. a hemoglobin molecule after the O2 has come off
Define carb-aminohemoglobin. CO2 is bound to an amino acid on the hemoglobin molecule
Define met-hemoglobin. hemoglobin in which the Fe has oxidized (3+), so O2 cannot bind
Define carboxyhemoglobin. hemoglobin in which the Fe carries carbon monoxide (CO)
What causes met-hemoglobin? certain chemicals (nitrates, nitrites, aniline), can happen spontaneously
How can we reduce the Fe3+ in met-hemoglobin back to 2+? met-hemoglobin reductase= enzyme in RBC
Why is carboxyhemoglobin poisonous? once CO binds to Fe2+, O2 can't bind
Which has greater affinity for Fe2+? (O2 or CO?) CO (carbon monoxide)
What produces CO? when organic coals, wood, gas is burned in low O2 levels
What is a physical sign of CO poisoning? cherry red appearance to skin d/t peripheral vasodilation
What is 1 way to determine level of CO poisoning? checking carbodyhemoglobin levels in blood
How is CO2 transported in the blood? 70% is carried in form of bicarbonate ion; 7% is dissolved in plasma; 23% forms carbaminohemoglobin
As you increase O2 concentration, you (increase or decrease?) the amount of O2 bound to hemoglobin. increase
The oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve is what shape? sigmoid curve (starts out slow, then steep curve up, then slows down again at the top)
What causes the flattening of the top of the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve? once the hemoglobin is saturated with O2, it leaves the lungs to go to areas of low PO2, where the hemoglobin dumps the O2 into the tissues
What 4 things cause the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve to shift to the RIGHT? 1)increased H+ ions, 2)increased CO2, 3)increased temp, 4)increased BPG (byproduct of metabolism glycolysis
What 4 things cause the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve to shift to the LEFT? 1)decreased H+ ions, 2)decreased CO2, 3)decreased temp, 4)decreased BPG
How do these things cause a shift to the RIGHT of the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve? they cue the hemoglobin that this is a metabolically active tissue, so the hemoglobin is dumping more O2 in the tissues
How do these things cause a shift to the LEFT of the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve? they cue the hemoglobin that this is a metabolically inactive tissue, so the hemoglobin holds onto the O2 to give somewhere else
Describe the Bohr effect. If the blood flows through an area of increased H+ or increased CO2, the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve will shift to the RIGHT.
Describe the Haldane effect. hemoglobin does not like to have O2 and CO2 bound at the same time, so if CO2 starts to bind, O2 is released
What is the respiratory minute ventilation equation? RR X Tv
Calculate a normal minute volume. 12 bpm X 500mL per breath=6L/min
True or False: The 6L/min of a normal minute ventilation is involved in gas exchange. False: Some will stay in the dead space)
What is the alveolar ventilation rate equation? RR X (Tv-dead space)
Calculate a normal alveolar ventilation rate. 12 bpm X (500mL-150mL) per breath =4.2L/min
What is a standard resting cardiac output? 5L
The pleural cavity is largest at the ___________. Why? apex (d/t gravity pulling the lungs down to the base)
Describe the intrapleural pressure at the apex, middle, and base of the lung. apex=10cmH2O, middle=5cmH2O, base=2cmH2O
True or False: As you go down the lung, volume decreases and pressure increases. False: As you go down the lung, volume INCREASES, and pressure DECREASES
Describe a normal ventilation/perfusion match. alveolar ventilation=4.2L/min; normal resting CO=5L/min; normal match=0.8 or 80%
Describe lung zone 1. (apex) 1)alveoli are most inflated; 2)ventilation is closest to large bronchi, 3)alveoli are compressing pulmonary arteries, 4)PA>Pa>Pv; 5)lots of air, but almost no blood (V/P >0.8)
Describe lung zone 2. (middle) 1)alveoli are moderately inflated, 2)pulmonary arteries are less pinched off than zone 1, 3)Pa>PA>Pv, 4)equal amounts of air and blood (V/P=0.8); 4)most of the "action" takes place here
Describe lung zone 3. (base) 1)alveoli are least inflated, 2)pulmonary artieries are not pinched off, which allows for most perfusion, 3)Pa>Pv>PA, 4)lots of blood, but not so much air (V/P <<0.8)
Which zone is located at the base of the lung? zone 3
Which zone is located at the apex of the lung? zone 1
Which zone is located in the middle of the lung? zone 2
Which zone has moderately inflated alveoli? zone 2
Which zone has alveoli that are least inflated? zone 3
Which zone has alveoli that are most inflated? zone 1
Which zone has the best V/P matching? zone 2
Which zone has V/P < 0.8? zone 3
Which zone has V/P > 0.8? zone 1
Which zone has pressures: Pa>Pv>PA? zone 3
Which zone has pressures: PA>Pa>Pv? zone 1
Which zone has pressures: Pa>PA>Pv? zone 2
Which zone is where most of the action takes place? zone 2