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transcription Synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template.
transcription factors Collection of proteins that mediate the binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription.
transcription initiation complex The assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase.
transduction The binding of the signal molecule changes the receptor protein in some way.
transfer RNA (tRNA) Interpreter of a series of codons along a mRNA molecule.
transformation A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
translation The synthesis of a polypeptide, which occurs under the direction of mRNA.
translocation Change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome.
transmembrane proteins Integral proteins that span the membrane.
transport An exchange of molecules (and their kinetic energy and momentum) across the boundary between adjacent layers of a fluid or across cell membranes.
transport protein A membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that has a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or atomic ions use as a tunnel.
transport vesicles Vesicles in transit from one part of the cell to another.
transposable genetic element A segment of DNA that can move within the genome of a cell by means of a DNA or RNA intermediate; also called a transposable element.
transposon A transposable genetic element that moves within a genome by means of a DNA intermediate.
triple response A plant growth maneuver in response to mechanical stress, involving slowing of stem elongation, a thickening of the stem, and a curvature that causes the stem to start growing horizontally.
triplet code Three-nucleotide long set that specifies a specific amino acid for a polypeptide chain.
trisomic A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has an extra copy of one chromosome, instead of the normal two.
trophic efficiency Percentage of production transferred from one trophic level to the next.
trophic structure Feeding relationships between organisms in a community.
tropism A growth response that results in the curvature of whole plant organs toward or away from stimuli owing to differential rates of cell elongation.
true-breeding Organisms that, when reproducing, create offspring of all the same variety.
tryiacylglycerol Glycerol and three fatty acids.
turgid A cell with a cell wall that has a reasonable amount of pressure but is healthy.
turgor pressure The pressure inside of a cell as a cell pushes itself against the cell wall.
turnover Seasonal changes in warm and cool water layers in lakes.
turnover time Standing crop biomass compared to production.
Type I Curve that shows low death rate at early and mid-life and drops at old age, as seen in humans and large animals.
Type II Curve that represents constant death rate over lifespan small animals and invertebrates.
Type III Curve that drops sharply at the start then levels off once individuals reach a critical age, as seen in organisms that produce large numbers of offspring.
ultimate questions Address evolutionary significance of a behavior.
ultrametric trees Diagram in which length of a branch reflects amounts of actual time.
uniform dispersion The pattern in which individuals are equally spaced throughout a habitat.
vaccine A harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that stimulates a host's immune system to mount defenses against the pathogen.
variation Is demonstrated by the differences in appearance that offspring show from parents and siblings.
vasoconstriction Reduces blood flow and heat transfer by decreasing the diameter of superficial blood vessels.
vasodialation Increases in the diameter of superficial blood vessels; cools the body.
veins Bundles of xylem and phloem.
vernalization The use of cold treatment to induce a plant to flower.
vesicle Small membrane-bound sac that functions in moving products into, out of, and within a cell.
vestigial structures Are little or no importance to organism, but remain from an ancestor.
viral envelope A membrane that cloaks the capsid that in turn encloses a viral genome.
virulent A term describing a pathogen against which a plant has little specific defense.
virulent Viruses that reproduce only by the lytic cycle.
voltage-gated ion channels Channels that open or close in response to a change in the membrane potential.
water potential The physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow, governed by solute concentration and applied pressure.
Watson and Crick Developed the double helix model of DNA.
white matter Whitish nervous tissue of the CNS consisting of neurons and their myelin sheaths.
wobble Flexibility in the base-pairing rules in which the nucleotide at the 5' end of a tRNA anticodon can form hydrogen bonds with more than one kind of base in the third position of a codon.
X linked genes Genes found on the X chromosome.
XO system A sex determination system in some insects in which O stands for the absence of a sex chromosome. Females are XX, Males are XO. Males produce two classes of sperm: X sperm and sperm with no chromosome. The sperm determines the sex of the offspring.
XY system A sex determination system in which females have two of the same kind of sex chromosome and males have two different ones.
yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) A cloning vector that has telomeres and a centromere that can accommodate large DNA inserts and uses the eukaryote yeast as a host cell.
zero population growth (ZPG) When per capita birth and death rates are equal. (r = 0)
ZW system A sex determination system in fish, butterflies, birds where males are ZZ and Females are ZW. The egg determines the sex of the offspring.
zygote Fertilized egg. Carries one set of chromosomes from each parent.
Created by: ssteuter