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Pharma. Exam 3 Drugs

the drugs needed to know for exam 3 of pharmacology at CSU

TermDefinition
Alprazolam (Xanax) Benzodiazepine with a short half life, so there is a high risk of addiction. Most widely sold. Used to treat panic attacks, general anxiety disorder, and depression.
Lorazepam Benzodiazepine with a short half life, so there is a high risk of addiction. Used to treat seizures, epilepsy, and panic attacks.
Oxazepam Benzodiazepine with a short half life, so there is a high risk of addiction. Used in elderly patients and instances where patients have lower kidney and liver function.
Triazolam Benzodiazepine with a short half life, so there is a high risk of addiction. Used to treat insomnia.
Chlordiazepoxide Benzodiazepine with a long half life.
Clonxepam Benzodiazepine with a long half life. Used to treat general anxiety disorder, social phobias, and seizures.
Diazepam (Valium) Benzodiazepine with a long half life. Used to treat siezures and epilepsy
Desipramine Tricyclic drug. Used to treat depression.
Nortriptyline Tricyclic drug. Used to treat depression.
Maprotiline Tricyclic drug. Used to treat depression.
Fluoxetine (Prozac) SSRI drug. Used to treat depression.
Sertraline SSRI drug. Used to treat depression.
Duloxetine (Cymbalta) SNRI drug. Used to treat depression.
Venlafaxine SNRI drug. Used to treat depression and GAD.
Phenelzine MAOI drug. Used to treat depression.
Tranylcypromine MAOI drug. Used to treat depression and anxiety.
Nifedipine Voltage dependant L type calcium channel blocker. Used to treat unipolar mania or bipolar disorder.
Diltiazem Voltage dependant L type calcium channel blocker. Used to treat unipolar mania or bipolar disorder.
Verapamil Voltage dependant L type calcium channel blocker. Used to treat unipolar mania or bipolar disorder.
Chloropromazine (Thorazine) Conventional antipsychotic used to treat positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Acts also as a tranquilizer with sedation effects.
Haloperidol (Haldol) Conventional antipsychotic used to treat positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Has a high rate of extrapyramidal effects.
Perphenazine Conventional antipsychotic used to treat positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Has a lowest of extrapyramidal effects.
Fluphenazine Conventional antipsychotic used to treat positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
Aripiprazole (Abilify) Atypical antipsychotic used to treat positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Half-life or 80 hours so useful to ensure compliance.
Clozapine (Clozaril) Atypical antipsychotic used to treat positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Agranulocytosis, leukopenia, neutropenia, throat ulcers, weight gain. Most effective of the atypicals.
Risperidone (Risperdal) Atypical antipsychotic used to treat positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Fewest side-effects, but can cause strokes in patients with alzheimers.
Bromocriptine Alternative PD Treatments and a dopamine agonist. D2 receptor agonist.
Pergolide Alternative PD Treatments and a dopamine agonist. D1 and 2 receptor agonist.
Ropinirole Alternative PD Treatments and a dopamine agonist. D2 and 3 receptor agonist. Can cause psychotic side effects.
Pramipexole Alternative PD Treatments and a dopamine agonist. D2 and 3 receptor agonist. Can cause psychotic side effects.
Rotigotine Alternative PD Treatments and a dopamine agonist. D3-5 receptor agonist. Used mainly in the form of a transdermal patch.
Selegiline MAOI that selectively inhibits MAO-B which is a dopamine degradation inhibitor used to treat PD.
Tolcapone COMT Inhibitor which is a dopamine degradation inhibitor that is lipophilic. Risk of liver damage, so only used to treat PD when other medications fail.
Entacapone COMT Inhibitor which is a dopamine degradation inhibitor that is hydrophilic. acts outside CNS to decrease L-DOPA degradation.
Tacrine (Cognex) Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors used to treat AD. Rarely used due to potential for liver damage.
Donzepil (Aricept) Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors used to treat AD. For mild to severe AD.
Rivastigmine (Excelon) Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors used to treat AD. Leads to weight loss and muscle weakness.
Galantamine Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors used to treat AD. Leads to weight loss.
Memantine NMDA R agonist used to treat AD. For moderate to severe AD. Side effects include confusion, dizziness, headache, and constipation.
Epinephrine Direct acting adrenergic agonist used for relief of hypersensitivity reactions and restoring cardiac rhythm. Effect is to increase in heart rate (β1R), constrict general arteries (α1R), dilate arteries for to skeletal muscles (β2R), bronchodilation (β2R).
Norepinephrine Direct acting adrenergic agonist used to maintain BP during shock and support cardiovascular function. Effect is to increase in heart rate (β1R), constrict general arteries (α1R).
Albuterol Bronchodilators, β2 agonists. Used for rescue inhalers with asthma.
Phenylephrine α1 agonist, Vasoconstrictor. Used as a nasal decongestant. At high levels can lead to hypertension.
Clonidine α2 agonist, presynaptic inhibition of sympathetic neurons leads to sedation and analgesia. Increases parasympathetic output. At high levels can lead to breathing problems and a low heart rate.
(Pseudo)ephedrine Direct α and β agonist and it promotes release of NE from sympathetic neurons, so it is a mixed acting agonist. Used as a decongestant.
(Meth)amphetamine or Methylphenidate Indirect acting, as it promotes the release of endogenous NT(NE, EPI, DOPA) potent stimulant.
Phenoxybenzamine Irreversibly blocks α1 and α2 receptors. Used to treat pheochromacytoma or sympathomimetic induced hypertension.
Phentolamine reversibly blocks α1 and α2 receptors. Used to treat pheochromacytoma or sympathomimetic induced hypertension.
Prazosin α1 antagonist, so it causes vasodilation, and a decrease in BP, afterload, and preload.
Propranolol β1 and β2 antagonist, so it decreases cardiac output and prevents bronchodilation.
Atenolol β1 antagonist, so it is safer for patients with bronchospastic diseases. It lowers cardiac output and oxygen demand. So this ultimately lowers BP and the rate of cardiac arrhythmias. Used in patients with congestive heart failure.
Muscarine Cholinergic agonist. Found in mushrooms. Increases SLUDGE.
Benthanechol Cholinergic agonist with some M3 selectivity. Used to treat urinary retention. Increases SLUDGE.
Acetylcholine Natural cholinergic agonist. Increases SLUDGE.
Atropine Cholinergic antagonist. Decreases heart rate and SLUDGE. Concerns tachyarrhythmia, GI stasis, and urine retention. Used during anesthesia to decrease airway secretions.
Ipratropium Cholinergic antagonist. Decreases heart rate and SLUDGE. Decreases bronchoconstriction and airway secretions. Used to treat asthma and COPD.
Propantheline Cholinergic antagonist. Promotes urine retention, so it is used in patients with incontinence.
Aliskiren Renin antagonist. Prevents conversion of angiotensinogen to ang 1. Used to lower BP by regulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
Benazepril Competitive antagonist of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE inhibitor). Prevents conversion of Ang1 to And 2. Used to lower BP by regulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
Iosartan Angiotensin receptor 1 (AT1) antagonist. Blocks the pro-hypertensive effect of Ang2. Used to lower BP by regulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
Carvedilol Competitive antagonist at β and α1 receptors. So it decreases cardiac output and total peripheral resistance.
Created by: 100000323760050