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Neuro

Stack #189564

QuestionAnswer
Norepinephrine Locus Ceruleus, alpha> beta 1
Dopamine Ventral Tegmentum & SNc
5-HT Raphe Nucleus
ACh Basal nucleus of Mynert
Nerve layers Endoneurium-> Perineurium -> Epineurium
Hypothalamus TAN HATS: Thirst, Adenohypophysis, Neurohypophysis, Hunger & satiety, Autonomics, Circadian Rhythm, Temperature, Sex & emotions
Neurohypophysis ADH: Supraoptic N. Oxytocin: paraventricular n.
Thalamus Ventral Anterior/Lateral N.:Motor, Ventral Posterior N-lateral part:Sensation, Ventral Posterior N-Medial part: Facial sensation, Lateral Geniculate Nucleus: Visual; Medial Geniculate Nucleus: Auditory
Thalamus Blood suppply PCA, Posterior Cerebral A, Anterior choroidal A.
Limbic Function Fight & Flight, Feeding, Feeling, Fucking
Posterior Communicating Artery CN3 Palsy
Lateral Striate Artery Off MCA -> Internal capsule, Striatum, GPs
Anterior Circle Sensory-motor
Posterior Circle Cranial Nerves, cerebellum, coma
Muscle Spindle Stretch. Intrafusal(= intrinsic to muscle spindle). Muscle/Intrafusal Stretch -> Ia aferent -> alpha motor neuron -> reflex contraction.
Gamma Loop CNS -> Gamma Neuron -> contracts intrafusal fiber-> increased reflex arc sensitivity
Golgi Tendon Tension. 1b -(inhibition)->1alpha motor neuron. Muscle gives away to prevent tear.
Parinaud Syndrome Pinealoma -> Lesion to superior colliculi -> Conjugate gaze paralysis
Nucleus Soltarius 7,9,10 Visceral Sensory (taste, baroreceptors, gut distention)
Nucleus Ambiguous 9,10,11 Motor Tongue->esophagus
Dorsal Motor Nucleus Autonomic (parasymp) to heart, lungs, upper GI
palat- muscles Vagus nerve (minus tensor veli palatini-V3)
-glossus muscles Hypoglossal nerve (Minus palatoglossus- CN10)
Alpha Fetoprotein Neural tube defects, anencephaly, Hepatocellular carcinoma, non-seminomatous germ cell tumors.
Utricle & Saccule linear acceleration (ampula-rotational)
Pacinian corpuscle Onion-like, vibratory.
Meissner's Corpuscle hairless skin. blobby. Fine touch.
Free nerve endings All skin. Arborizing. C, Adelta fibers, Pain & Temp
Merkel's Disk Hair follicles, fingertips. Static touch.
Canal of Schlemm Aqueous humor drainage. near outer iris.
Spinal Cord Lesion DDx (7) Poliomyelitis & Wrding-Hoffman Dz, ALS, MS, B12, Tertiary Syphilis/Tabes Dorsalis, Anterior spinal artery infarct, Syringomyelia, Brown-Sequard Syndrome.
Horners...wtf? Hypothalamus ->interomediolateral column->Sympathetics from T1->Superior cervical ganglion->V2 (open eyes, dilate pupil), sweating.
Arcuate Fasciculus Lesion Poor repetition, good comprehension & speech. Wernicke's-Brocca's communcation lesion
Amygdala lesion talkative, horny, uninhibited. (Kluver-bucy Synd)
Parietal Lobe Lesion Contralateral neglect
Reticular activating system lesion Low arousal/coma
Mammillary Body Lesion Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
Basal Ganglia Lesion Tremor, chorea (jerky mvmt), atheosis (slow, writhing mvmt)
Cerebellar Lesion Intention tremor, ataxia. (Vermis: Medial, hemisphere: limbs)
Subthalamic Nucleus Lesion Contralateral hemiballismus
Hippocampus Lesion ANTEROGRADE amnesia
Paramedian Pontine Reticular Formation Lesion Eyes look away from lesion
Frontal eye field Lesion Eyes look toward the lesion
Alzheimer's "Nucleus basalis degeneration. Amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles
Hereditary, AD: Beta-Amyloid Precursor Protein.
Sporadic:APOE4."
Pick's Disease Dementia, aphasia, parkinsonian. Tau- Pick bodies
Lewy Body Dementia Dementia + Hallucinations. alpha-synuclein. Lewy Bodies.
Creutzfelt-Jacob Disease Prions. Rapid. myoclonus. Spongiform cortex.
Huntington's Caudate Nucleus atrophy (LO GABA). Chromosome 4. Enlarged ventricles.
Parkinson's Lewy Bodies (alpha synuclein). MPTP
Olivopontocerebellar atrophy, Freidreich's Ataxia Spinocerebellar tract lesion. fratxin
ALS LMN & UMN signs, Superoxide Dismutase1 (SOD1) mutation.
Floppy baby, tongue fasciculations, death @7 mos. Werdnig-Hoffman Disease. AR
Rapid growth (HERNIATION)-> necrosis w/PSEUDOPALISADES). Glioblastoma: Adult, most common, 1yr survival. Cross corpus callosum. Astrocytes GFAP+. WHO Grade IV. GFAP stain+
Psammoma bodies & spindle cells. Meningioma. 2nd most common adult. @ arachnoid invaginations.
Mass in CN8. (Bilateral) Schwannoma. 3rd most common adult. (Neurofibromatosis type 2)
Slow-growing, frontal lobe. Round nuclei w/clear cytoplasm, Chicken-wire capillaries. Oligodendroglioma. Rare.
Well-circumscribed tumor in children. posterior fossa. Eosinophilic corkscrew fibers. Pilocytic Astrocytoma. Low-grade. Benign, good prognosis. ROSENTHAL FIBERS
Cerebellar tumor in kids. Compresses 4th ventricle. Rosettes/perivascular pseudorosettes. Medulloblastoma. Radiosensitive.
Tumor within 4th ventricle -> hydrocephalus. Kids. Rosettes, perivascular pseudorosettes. Ependymoma. Poor prognosis.
Cerebellar tumor. Foamy cells. Highly vascular HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. von Hippel-Lindenau associated (retinal angiomas).
Sellar mass +/- calcifications Craniopharyngioma. Benign. Rathke's pouch derived.
Small posterior fossa-> downward displacement of cerebellum. Tonsilar herniation Arnold-Chiari Malformation
Low lying cerebellum-> CSF obstruction -> cerebellar tonsils descend into foramen magnum. Benign. Chiari 1 Malformation. Chiari II is when cerebellum & medulla herniate too. Fatal.
Large posterior fossa, cyst replaces cerebellum. Dandy Walker malformation
Septal Nucleus Sex & emotions
Supraoptic Nucleus Thirst
Adenohypophysis & Neurohypophysis Median Eminence
Hunger Lateral Nucleus
Satiety Ventromedial nucleus
Autonomics Parasympathetic: Anterior Hypothalamus. Sympathetic: Posterior Hypothalamus
Circadian Rhythm Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
Temperature Heat: Posterior Hypothalamus. Cooling: Anterior Hypothalamus
GFAP Astrocyte Marker
Nissl Stain Oligodendroglia, Negri Bodies (rabies)
Facial Nerve Face mvmt, Taste of anterior 2/3, Mouth & eye glands(-PAROTID), stapedius muscle.
Glossopharyngeal (9) Taste from posterior 1/3, Oral musculature, PAROTID carotid body & sinus, stylopharyngeus.
Hypoglossal (12) Tongue movement
Uncal Sx Ipsilateral dilated pupil & ptosis (CN3 stretch), Contralateral homonymous hemianopia (PCA compression)
Tonic Clonic Seizure Tx 1st Line:Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, Valproic acid. + Lamotrigine, Gabapentin, Topiramate, Phenobarbital. All can be used for Partial.
Absence Seizures 1st Line: Ethosuximide (only use). +Valproic Acid
Status Epilepticus Acute: Benzodiazepine (Diazepam/Lorazepam). Prophylaxis: Phenytoin.
Benzodiazepines Mech: Potentiate GABAa Action. Use:Status Epilepticus & Eclampsia Tx. SE:Sedation, tolerance, dependence. Antidote: Flumazenil.
Carbamazepine Mech:Inactivates Na Channel. Use:1st for GTCs & Trigeminal neuralgia, Partial Seizures. SE: Diplopia, Ataxia, Blood Dyscrasias, Liver, Teratogen.
Ethosuximide Mech:T-Type Ca channels. Use:Absence Seizures. SE:GI, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Urticaria (wheals).
Phenobarbital (Barbituates) Mech:Potentiate GABAa Action. Use:1st line in pregnant & peds for GTCs & Partial, anxiety. SE: Sedation tolerance, dependence.
Phenytoin Mech: Inactivates Na Channels. Use:1st line GTC & Status Prophylaxis, Partial, 1B Antiarrhythmic. SE: Nystagmus & diplopia, gingival hyperplasia, megaloblastic anemia, hirsutism, SLE, Teratogen.
Valproic Acid Mech: Inactivates Na Channels& increase GABA. Use:1st line GTC, Myoclonic, Absence, Partial. SE:GI, Fatal hepatotoxicity (LFTs), neural tube defects.
Lamotrigine Mech: BLOCKS Na Channels. Use: GTC, Partial. SE: Stevens-Johnson.
GABApentin Mech: Increase GABA release. Use: GTC, Partial, Peripheral Neuropathy. SE:Sedation, ataxia.
Topiramate Mech: BLOCKS Na Channels. Use:GTC, Partial. SE: Kidney stones, sedation, mental dulling.
Thiopental Mech: Potentiate GABAa Action. Use: Anasthesia induction.
Succinylcholine Mech: Tonic nicotinic depolarization. Use: Surgical paralysis. Antidote: Cholinesterase inhibitor (Neostigmine) once cell is repolarized.
Curare-Based Drugs Mech: Competitive nicotinic antagonist. Use: Surgical paralysis. Antidote: Cholinesterase Inhibitor (Neostigmine, edrophonium)
Dantrolene Mech: Blocks Ca release from SR. USe: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, malignant hyperthermia.
Created by: Kyle Tiemeier