Save
Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
focusNode
Didn't know it?
click below
 
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Know
0:00
share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

GI

QuestionAnswer
Hepatitis A Fecal-Oral. Acute only.
Hepatitis B Parenteral/Sex/IV, 6mo+ HBs-> +/- Chronic->heptatocelluar Carcinoma. HBe & HBV DNA correlate w/viremia.
Hepatitis C Parenteral, Transfusion. +/- Chronic ->Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatitis D Co-infx w/ HVB. +/- Chronic.
Hepatitis E Fecal-oral. Pregnancy-> increased mortality
Gilbert Syndrome Reduced UDP glucuronyl transferase. High unconjugated bilirubin. Asymptomatic
Crigler-Najjar Syndrome No UDP glucuronyl transferase. Jaundice, kernicterus (depositin in brain), high unconj. bilirubin. Type1: Lethal. Type2: Tx w/ phenobarbital.
Dubin-Johnson & Rotor Syndromes No bilirubin excretion from liver. D-J:->black liver. Both are benign.
Microvesicular Fatty Liver: Reye's Syndrome: Microvesicular fatty liver, Encephalopathy & coma. Assoc. w/ Aspirin in kids w/ viral infx. Pregnancy: During 3rd trimester, High mortality. Tetracycline: Hypersensitivity Rx.
Hemachromatosis DM, Cirrhosis, Skin pigmentation. HLA-A3 associated OR Achronic transfusions (beta thalassemia), chrom 6. Elevated serum FE
Wilson's Disease Ceruloplasmin deficiency (a marker, not causal). Hepatitis/cirrhosis, Basal ganglia [parkinsonian]. Renal tubule)
Budd-Chiari Syndrome Thrombosis of hepatic vein->jaundice, hepatomegaly, ascites. Assoc. w/poycythemia vera, hepatocellular carcinoma/other abdominal neoplasms, pregnancy.
Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma #1:Head-> obstructive jaundice. #2:Tail->Secondary DM
Abdominal layers Skin, Superficial fascia, External->internal Oblique,Transversus abdominus, Transversalis fascia, Extraperitoneal tissue, Peritoneum.
Celiac A. Foregut. Vagus. T12/L1: Stomach, prox duodenum, liver & gallbladder, pancreas.
Superior Mesenteric A. Midgut. Vagus. L1. Dist. Duodenum, Proximal 2/3 of Transverse colon
Inferior Mesenteric A. Hindgut. Pelvic. L3. Distal 1/3 of Transverse verse colon, upper rectum.
Myenteric (Auerbach's) Motility. Between inner(circular) & outer(longitudinal) smooth muscle layers.
Submucosal (Meissner's) Secretion, blood flow, absorption. In submucosa between mucosa & inner smooth muscle layer of muscularis externa.
Cholecystokinin I cells (Duodenum&Jejunum). Pancreatic & Gall secretions. Inhibits Gastric emptying. Fat & protein stimulates it-> Cholelithiasis exacerbated by fatty meal.
Gastrin G Cells (Antrum). Increase Acid, motility, mucosa growth. Stimulated by stomach distention, protein (esp. phenylalanine & tryptophan), vagus. Inhibited by low pH. ZE syndrome.
Secretin S Cells (Duodenum) Increase bicarb & bile, decrease H+. Increased by acid, fat. Higher pH permits pancreatic enzymes.
Somatostatin D Cells. (Pancreas, Mucosa). Slows everything. Stimulated by acid, inhibited by vagus. Tx for VIPoma, carcinoid
GIP K Cells. (Duodenum & Jejunum). Reduce acid, increase insulin. Stimulated by food.
VIP Parasympathetics (sphincters, gallbladder, small intestine). Increase H2O, SM relaxation. Stimulated by distention, inhibited by sympathetics. VIPoma: pancreatic tumor-> diarrhea.
NO SM relaxation. LOF-> achalasia.
Motilin Small intestine. Migrating motor complexes. Stimulated by fasting state.
SGLT1 Glucose/Galactoe-Na Co-transporter
GLUT-5 Fructose transporter.
GLUT-2 Nonspecific monosaccharide xporter to blood.
Boerhaave Syndrome Esophageal rupture b/c retching (as opposed to mallory-weiss tear, which is painful lacerations to GE-jct)
Whipple'S Disease Malabsorption, migratory arthritis, CNS, Cardiac. T. whipplei bacteria (G+ bacillus). PAS+ macrophages
Celiac Sprue Blunted villi, lymphatic infiltrati. Jejunum. Assoc w/ Dermatitis Herpetiformis, T-Cell Lymphomas.
Menetrier's Disease Gastric hypertrophy -> thick ruggae. Mucinous cells overrun parietal cells -> low H+ output -> protein malabsorption.
Ulcerative Colitis Autoimmune. Rectum +. (Sub)Mucosa involvement. Always bloody. Assoc w/Pyoderma gangrenosum, colorectal carcinoma & primary sclerosing cholangitis. Tx: Sulfasalazine.
Crohn's Disease Post-infx. Terminal ileum, Colon - rectum. Transmural inflammation, skips, cobblestone. Granulomatous. Tx: corticosteroids.
Diverticulosis v. Diverticulitis Diverticulosis: Elderly, low-fiber diet, Sigmoid colon. Diverticulitis: Inflammation, LLQ pain, fever, leukocytosis -> peritonitis, abscess.
Meckel's Diverticulum Ectopic gastric/pancreatic tissue. Terminal ileum. Assoc w/volvulus, intussusception, obstruction.
Turcot's Syndrome FAP + Glioblastomas
Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome Hamartomatous benign polyps on small intestine/colon. High risk of Colorectal cancer, others.
AST>ALT Alcoholic hepatitis (>1.5)
ALT>AST Viral hepatitis
Reye's Syndrome ASA tx for pediatric viral infx. Microvesicular fatty liver, hypoglycemia, coma.
Mallory Bodies Hyalination. Alcoholic hepatitis marker.
Hepatocellular Carcinoma Hep B&C, Wilson's, Hemochromatosis, alpha1-antitrypsin, alcohol, aflatoxin. Alpha-fetoprotein.
Hyperbilirubinemia HEPATOCELLULAR: Conj & Unconj, High urine bilirubin, normal urobilinogen. CHOLESTATIC/OBSTRUCTIVE: Conj, high urine bilirubin, low urobilinogen. HEMOLYTIC: Unconjugated. No urine bilirubin, elevated urine urobilinogen.
Acute Pancreatitis GET SMASHeD: Gallstones, Ethanol, Trauma, Steroids, Mumps, Autoimmune dz, Scorpion sting, Hypercalcemia/Hyperlipidemia, Drugs (sulfa)
Retroperitoneal GI Structures Distal duodenum, Ascending & Descending Colon, Pancreas
GI Collateral Circulation (Aorta Blocked) Subclavian -> Internal Thoracic/Mammary -> Sup. Epigastric -> Inf. Epigastric -> Ext. Iliac -> Int. Iliac -> 1) Middle Rectal -> Inf. Mesenteric -> Sup. Mesenteric -> Thoracic Aorta 2) Common Iliac -> Thoracic Aorta. Then supplies Celiac, SMA, IMA
Portosystemic Vein Anastamoses 1)Umbilicus (Inf & Sup Epigastric <-> Paraumbilical ). 2) Esophagus (L. Gastric <-> Esophageal Veins). 3) Rectum (Superior Rectal <-> Middle/Inferior Rectal Veins) 4)Surgical: Splenic <-> Renal
Brunner's Glands Alkaline mucus secretions from duodenal submucosa. Hypertrophied in peptic ulcer disease.
Enteropeptidase/Enterokinase Activates Trypsinogen -> Trypsin in duodenum.
Glut5, SGLT1 Glut5: GI passive fructose absorption. SGLT1: Na-dependent Glucose & Galactose importer
Esophageal Cancer (Risk factors, Type) ABCDEF: Alcohol/Achalasia, Barrett's, Cigarettes, Diverticuli, Esophageal Web (P-V Synd)/Esophagitis, Familial. SCC>Adeno.
Misoprostol PGE1 Analog. Supports gastric mucous, inhibits acid secretion. NSAID-induced peptic ulcers, maintain PDAs, induce labor, abortion
H Pylori Tx Metronidazole, Amoxocillin/Tetra, Bismuth, +/- PPI
Pirenzepine M1, M3 Antagonist -> Lowers Acid & Histamine secretion. Tx: Peptic ulcers. SE: Tachycardia, dry mouth, blurry vision.
AlOH, MgOH,CaCO3 HYPOKALEMIA Aluminum: Constipation, hypoPO4. Magnesium:Diarrhea, hyporeflexia, HypoTN & Cardiac arrest. Calcium:hyperCa, rebound acid.
Infliximab Anti-TNF antibody. Tx: Crohn's Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis. SE: Fever, Respiratory Infx, HypoTN
Sulfasalazine Sulfapyridine(antibiotic) + Mesalamine(anti-inflammatory). Tx:UC, Crohn's. SE:Malaise, Nausea, Sulfa toxicity, oligospermia.
Onadestron 5-HT3 antagonist. Tx: Anti-emetic. SE: Headache, constipation.
Created by: Kyle Tiemeier
 

 



Voices

Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards