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Behavioral Sci& EBM

Odds Ratio Odds of EXPOSURE in a disease (+) group: Case Control. (Of exposed: Dz+/Dz-) / (Of unexposed: Dz+/DZ-)
Relative Risk Risk of DISEASE in an exposure: Cohort. % exposed who are (+)/ % unexposed who are (+)
Attributable Risk "Additional Risk" of getting a disease because of an exposure. %(+) with exposure - %(+) without exposure.
Selection v. Sampling Bias Selection: Organizers don't properly randomize subjects. Sampling: Those who elect to partake in study don't reflect population.
Procedure bias Groups aren't treated the same.
Type I Error (alpha) Probability of a "False positive study" alpha is the standard (=.05), compared to p, which is specific to the study result.
Type II Error (beta) Probablility of a "False negative study"
Power (1-beta) Probability of a "True positive study" Increased by sample size, magnitude of exposed/unexposed difference.
Standard Deviation (Sigma) 68% lie within 1 standard deviation of mean, 95% are within 2 standard deviations, 99.7 are within 3 standard deviations.
Standard Error of the Mean (SEM) (1 standard deviation)/ (Sqr root of sample size). This is like standard deviation, but accounts for population size. Low SEM -> strong study result. Is used to measure the confidence interval.
Confidence Interval = [mean -z(SEM)] to [mean -z(SEM)]. For p=.05, z is set to 1.96.
T Test Absolute difference between mean of 2 groups
ANOVA Absolute difference between mean of 3+ groups
Ki^2 Fraction/percent difference between 2+ groups
Disease Prevention (PDR) Primary: Prevent occurence, Secondary: Detection of disease, Tertiary: Reduce disability from disease
Alcoholism prevention measures Flu & pneumo vaccinations, TB test
Reportable diseases MMR, Chickenpox, Salmonella, Shigella, Hepatitis, STDs, TB
APGAR Score 0-2 score x 5: Appearance(limbs+trunk pink), Pulse(100+), Grimace(G+cough), Activity, Respiration(regular)
Low Birthweight <2.5kg. Necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage, persistent fetal circulation, RDS, infections
Sleep Stages & Waves BATS Drink Blood. Awake: (beta), 1 (alpha), 2(theta), 3-4(Sleep spindles & K complexes), 5(Delta, Night terrors & bed wetting), REM (Beta, erections, dreams)
Raphe Nucleus Serotonin. Sleep.
Correlation Coefficient -1 & 1: direct correlation. 0: no correlation
Stage 4 sleep Shortened by benzodiazepines & imipramine.
Infant Mortality Congenital, premature/low wt, SIDS, pregnancy complications, RDS
1-14 Mortality Injury, cancer, congenital, homicide, HD
15-24 Mortality Injuries, Homicide, Suicide, Cancer, HD
25-64 Cancer, HD, Injuries, suicide, stroke
65+ HD, Cancer, Stroke, COPD, Pneumonia, Influenza
Berkenson's Bias Tendency to select hospitalized patients
Reliable = Precise Reliable-precise
Projection Projecting our own feelings on someone else in similar scenario
Identification Modeling behavior after someone else's
Reaction Formation Shifting from an inappropriate behavior to the opposite
Pygmalion Effect Researcher's beliefs about treatment efficacy affect study
Hawthorne Effect Participant awareness of study aims effect behavior->outcome
Nucleus Ceruleus Norepinephrine
Nucleus Basalis of Mynert AcetylCholine
Caudate Nucleus Huntington's Dz
Created by: Kyle Tiemeier



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