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Oxygenation

TermDefinition
Hemoglobin Study Reflects amount of hemoglobin - Male: 13.2-17.3 g/dl - Female: 11.7-16.o g/dl
Hematocrit Study Ratio of RBC cells to plasma - Males: 39%-50% - Femals35%-47%
Polycythemia Increased hematocrit level - found in chronic hpoxemia
ABGs Obtained through puncture of radial or femoral artery
Oximetry Monitors arterial or venous O2 saturation (SpO2)
End-tidal CO2 (PEET CO2) (capnography) Assesses level of CO2 in exhale air - PaCo2 35-45 mm Hg - PETCO2 37-50 mm Hg)
Culture and Sensitivity Sputum Study Purpose: Dx bacterial infection - Takes 48-72 hours for results
Gram Stain Sputum Study Permits classification of bacteria into gram-negative and gram-positive to help guide therapy until culture and sensitivity results are obtained - obtain sputum (mucoidike) not saliva
Acid-fast Smear and Culture Study Assess sputum for acid-fast bacilli - A series of three early-morning specimens is used
Cytolgy Study Determines presence of abnormal cells that may indicate malignant conditions
Mediastinoscopy Scope is inserted through a small incision in the suprasternal notch and advanced into the mediastinum to inspect and biopsy lympth nodes - Dx cancer - prepare pt for surgical intervention
Lung Biopsy Specimens may be obtained by transbronchial or percutaneous biopsy or via transthoracic needle aspiration - used to obtain specimens for laboratory analysis
Thoracentesis Used to obtain specimen of pleural fluid for Dx, to remove pleural fluid, or instill medication - Chest x-ray is always obtained after procedure to check for pneumothorax
Thoracentesis Position pt upright W/ elbows on an overbed table and feet supported - Observe for signs if hypoxia and pneumothorax, and verify breath sounds in a ll fields after procedure - Encourage deep breathing to expand lungs
Pulmonary Function Test Used to evaluate lung function - Uses spirometer to assess air movement as pt performs prescribed respiratory maneuvers - Avoid scheduling immediately after mealtime - Avoid administration of inhaled bronchodialtor 6 Hr before procedure - Provide rest
Exercise Testing Used to Dx and in determining exercise capacity - Encourage pt to walk as quickly as possible
6-min Walk Test Used to measure functional capacity and response to treatment in pts W/ HD or lung disease - Pt is instructed to walk as far as possible during 6 minutes, stopping when short of breath and continuing when able
Chest X-ray Study Used to screen, Dx, and evaluate changes in respiatory system, Instruct pt to undress to waist, put on gown, and remove any metal between neck and waist
Computed Tomography (CT) Study Performed for Dx of lesions difficult to assess by conventional x-ray studies (mediastinum, hilum, pleura) - Contrast medium may be given IV - Evaluation of BUN and serum creatinine is done before contrast to assess renal function
Computed Tomography (CT) Study Assess if pt is allergic to shellfish (iodine) - Ensure pt is hydrated before and after to excrete contrast - Contrast may cause a feeling of being warm and flushed -
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Study Used for DX of lesions diff, to assess by CT scan (lung apex) - Contrast medium is NOT iodine based - Claustrophobia pt - Remove all metal - Pacemaker pt and implantables may not be able to have MIR
Vetilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan Study Used to access ventilation and perfusion of lungs - IV radiotope given to assess perfusion - For ventilation pt inhales radioactive gas - Homogeneous radioactivity = normal scan - Diminished or absent radioactivity = lack of perfusion or airflow
Pulmonary Angiogram Study To visualize pulmonary vasculature & locate obstruction/pathologic conditions - contract medium is injected through catheter threaded into pulmonary artery or R side of heart - CT contract media precautions - Monitor BP, P, & circulation distal to IV
Positron Emission Tomograohy (PET) Scan Study To distinguish benign & malignant pulmonary nodules - Uses IV radioactive glucose preparation - Check blood glucose (high levels may interfere W/ test) - Food & fluids other than H2O may be restricted for 4-6 Hrs - Encourage fluids to excrete radioactive
Endoscopy Bronchoscopy Study For Dx, biopsy specimen collection, assessment of changes, or suction mucous plugs - NPO 6-12 Hrs before test & until gag reflex returns - Biopsy > monitor for hemorrhage and pneumothorax
Created by: 1111885777