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Reproduction Test

Covering Meiosis, Mitosis, and Genetics

QuestionAnswer
Define asexual reproduction reproduction without a partner creating exact copies of chromosomes and offspring; typically faster process.
Define sexual reproduction reproduction with a partner creating variations in offspring and a blend of chromosomes; typically slower process.
What is the difference in number of parents between asexual and sexual reproduction? asexual has only one while sexual has two parents.
What is the difference in offspring between asexual and sexual reproduction? asexual are identical while sexual is different.
What is a disadvantage of asexual reproduction? if something kills one cell, it will kill all offspring.
What is a disadvantage of sexual reproduction? typically a slower process.
Define binary fission asexual reproduction in organisms without a nucleus. Typically happens in bacteria.
Define budding and the types of organisms that use this type of reproduction asexual reproduction in simple life forms with a nucleus that creates an exact copy. Typically happens in yeast and sea sponges.
Cell cycle the life cycle of the cell incorporating all stages of mitosis.
Parent cell the cell that is dividing.
Daughter cell the identical cells formed during mitosis.
Ceontrosomes organelle responsible for pulling chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell during reproduction.
Spindles microtubules that grab hold of chromosomes to help move them during mitosis.
Interphase active phase of the cell where organelle duplication occurs. Chromosome duplication happens here as well.
Prophase first stage of mitosis and meiosis where the nucleus disappears and chromosomes look like spaghetti.
Metaphase chromosomes line up in the center of the cell.
Anaphase Copies of each chromosome separate and move towards opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase nucleus reforms around each set of chromosomes and cells begin to separate.
Cytokinesis the division of the cytoplasm into two separate cells.
Define haploid single set of unpaired chromosomes
Define diploid containing two complete sets of chromosomes
Define gametes mature (both male and female) haploid cell able to unite during sexual reproduction.
Define maternal from the mother or female.
Define paternal from the father or male.
Interphase active phase of the cell where organelle duplication occurs. Chromosome duplication happens here as well.
Prophase I first stage of meiosis where the nucleus disappears and chromosomes look like spaghetti.
Crossing Over the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring. Happens during prophase I.
Metaphase I chromosomes line up in the center of the cell.
Anaphase I copies of each chromosome separate and move towards opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase I nucleus reforms around each set of chromosomes and cells begin to separate.
Prophase II 2nd stage of meiosis where the nucleus disappears and chromosomes become visible. No duplication of chromosomes occurred.
Metaphase II chromosomes line up in the center of the cell.
Anaphase II chromosome separate and move towards opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase II nucleus reforms around each set of chromosomes and cells begin to separate into four haploid cells.
Similarity between meiosis and mitosis both have chromosome duplication during interphase;
Differences between meiosis and mitosis meiosis happens sexually and creates 4 unique, haploid cells while mitosis happens asexually and creates two, identical diploid cells.
Define homologous chromosomes set of chromosomes with one maternal and one paternal chromosome paired.
Identify three reasons why we aren’t like mom and dad independent assortment, crossing over of chromosomes, and random pairing of gametes.
Define genotype genes present in DNA
Define Homozygous two genes of the same type; pure bred
Define Heterozygous mixture of genes; hybrid
Define Phenotype outward appearance of an organism.
Define allele alternate forms of the same gene.
Define Mendel’s 1st Law of Dominance In a cross of parents that are pure for contrasting traits, only one form of the trait will appear in the next generation. Offspring that are hybrid for a trait will have only the dominant trait in the phenotype.
Define Mendel’s 2nd Law of Segregation During the formation of gametes (eggs or sperm), the two alleles responsible for a trait separate from each other. Alleles for a trait are then "recombined" at fertilization, producing the genotype for the traits of the offspring.
Define dominant An allele that expresses its phenotypic effect even when heterozygous with a recessive allele
Define recessive an allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical
Define co-dominant Of or relating to two alleles of a gene that are both fully expressed in a heterozygote
Define Mendel’s 3rd Law of Independent Assortment Alleles for different traits are distributed to sex cells (& offspring) independently of one another.
Created by: sdscience6