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AP Psych Key Figures

A review of the key figures mentioned in AP Psychology.

TermDefinition
Mary Whiton Calkins first female president of the American Psychological Association (APA)
Charles Darwin proposed the theory of evolution; the goal of human behavior is to ensure survival and reproduction
Dorthea Dix social reformer for imprisoned, poorly treated, mentally ill; worked to establish state hospitals; part of the medical model
Sigmund Freud founded the psychoanalytic perspective; developed the five stages of psychosexual development, in each of which a possible fixation can occur
G. Stanley Hall established the first psychology lab in the US at Johns Hopkins University
William James developed functionalism, which challenged Titchener's structuralism; looked at how human mental processes worked in the real world; with Carl Lange, developed the James-Lange theory of emotion
Ivan Pavlov developed classical conditioning while studying digestion in dogs
Jean Piaget created the cognitive development model (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operational)
Carl Rogers one of the founders of the humanist branch of psychology; developed the person-centered theory based on self-concepts; emphasized client-centered therapy
Abraham Maslow one of the founders of the humanist branch of psychology; created the hierarchy of needs; stressed the importance of self-actualization
B.F. Skinner developed operant, or instrumental, conditioning
Mary Floy Washburn first woman in America to receive a Ph.D. in psychology
John B. Watson founder of behavioralism; classically conditioned Little Albert
Paul Broca identified the area of the brain responsible for language; damage to the area results in expressive aphasia, or the inability to produce language
Michael Gazzaniga studied patients of split-brain surgery (cutting of the corpus callosum); noticed no serious effects after surgeries
Roger Sperry studied how the different hemispheres operate independent of each other
Carl Wernicke identified the area of the brain responsible for understanding language; damage to the area results in receptive aphasia
Gustav Fechner defined absolute threshold and the just noticeable difference
David Hubel along with Weisel, discovered feature detectors
Torston Weisel along with Hubel, discovered feature detectors
Earnest Hilgard created the dissociation theory of hypnosis, stating hypnosis causes us to divide our consciousness into a hidden observer and a consciousness prone to suggestibility
Albert Bandura social learning theory; observational learning (modeling); conducted the Bo-Bo doll experiment
John Garcia coined learned taste aversion
Robert Rescorla developed the contingency model, proposing that in order for learning to take place, an organism must be able to predict that their behavior will result in an outcome; behavioral psychologist who studied classical conditioning
Edward Thorndike created the Law of Effect: behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened, those followed by negative consequences are diminished
Edward Toleman created cognitive maps, or mental representations of the environment; determined cognitive maps proved latent learning
Wolfgang Kohler discovered insight learning by studying chimpanzees
Noam Chomsky theorized about the language acquisition device, overgeneralization, and a critical learning period for language
Herman Ebbinghaus proposed the concept of a forgetting curve using nonsense syllables; concluded that most forgetting occurs within an hour
Elizabeth Loftus felt eye witness accounts weren't necessarily accurate due to investigator influences and falsey implanted memories
George Miller theorized that short term memory's capacity for most people is "magic number plus or minus 2;" suggested chunking for memorizing
Alfred Kinsey studied sexual orientation and estimated 10% of the population in the early 1900s were homosexual
Stanley Schachter along with Singer, created the Schachter-Singer two factor theory of emotion, stating emotion is experienced after a cognitive label is applied to stimuli
Hans Seyle theorized of General Adaptive Syndrome, which include three stages to stress reaction: Alarm, Resistance, and Exhaustion
Mary Ainsworth conducted the strange-situation experiment to determine the types of attachment between a mother and child; secure, anxious-ambivalent, and anxious-avoidant attachments were found to exist
Albert Bandura developed the social learning theory, or the social-cognitive perspective; we learn by imitating models (observational learning); believed in reciprocal determinism as a factor of personality; self efficacy
Diana Baumrind identified three parenting styles: authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive
Eric Erickson developed the eight stages of psychosocial development, each of which contains a possible conflict
Carol Gilligan disagreed with Kohlberg due to supposed male/female differences in morality; said females made moral decisions based more on social relationships
Harry Harlow emphasized the importance of physical contact by studying monkeys
Konrad Lorenz studied attachment with imprinting of goslings; felt there was a critical period for attachment
Lawrence Kohlberg proposed three stages of moral development
Jean Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development
Lev Vygotsky proposed the zone of proximal development theory; he felt social interaction, in the form of people who provide children with cognitive growth opportunities, was important for cognitive development to occur
Alfred Adler believed striving for superiority was the main goal of life, not sex; inferiority motivates us to acquire new skills; studied the effects of birth order
Paul Costa and Robert McCrae proposed the trait theory using the Five-Factor Model: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extroversion
Carl Jung felt the unconscious incorporated both personal and collective unconscious; archetypes are ancestral memories that show up as symbols in many different cultures
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon published the first intelligence test designed to help children in school; expressed intelligence in terms of mental age
Francis Galton published Hereditary Genius; believed intelligence was hereditary
Howard Gardener proposed eight different measures of intelligence
Charles Spearman believed intelligence had two factors, an s factor (specific mental abilities) and a common underlying g factor (general intelligence)
Robert Sternberg developed the triarchic theory of intelligence, stating that intelligence is either analytical, creative, or practical
Louis Terman revised Binet's test for use in the US; calculated intelligence using the formula MA/CA x 100
David Weschler first to devise a test to measure intelligence in adults; established the use of the bell curve
Rosenhan conducted a study showing the power of labeling on people with psychological disorders
Aaron Beck emphasized cognitive therapy; the goal is to teach clients new ways of thinking and to change illogical beliefs
Albert Ellis developed rational emotive behavioral therapy, which purpose is to change the catastrophizing belief that leads to negative consequences
Mary Carver Jones first to successfully use classical conditioning to recondition a child to overcome a fear
Joseph Wolpe used the counterconditioning technique of systematic desensitization
Solomon Asch performed experiments on the effects of conformity
Leon Festinger developed the theory of cognitive dissonance
Elton Mayo a key figure in the branch of industrial/organizational psychology; discovered the Hawthorne Effect
Stanley Milgram performed a controversial experiment on obedience using shock
Robert Rosenthal identified the Pygmalion Effect among students and teachers
Philip Zombardo conducted a study on the power of situations and roles by simulating a prison environment
Muzafer Sherif conducted the Robbers' Cave Study and determined the best way to unite different groups was by imposing superordinate goals
Created by: SydneyR