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DNA - RNA Test

What are three aspects that are controlled by DNA? 1. A genes ability to easily copy itself. 2. The transfer of information from generation to generation. 3. Certain traits and how they are inherited.
What are the three components of a nucleotide? 1. Nitrogenous base 2. 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose or ribose) 3. Phosphate group
Describe the structure of a purine. Has 2 rings
Describe the structure of a pyrimidine. Has 1 ring
What is the structure of a double helix? Double stranded molecule that resembles a twisted ladder
Who discovered the double helix shape of DNA? Watson and Crick
What holds together the two strands of a DNA molecule? Hydrogen bonds
What bases pair together? A with T and G with C
Why do certain bases pair together? Hydrogen bonds can only form between specific bases.
What is a protein that DNA tightly coils around called? Histone
What is a nucleosome? The combination of DNA and the protein/histone it coils around.
How is chromatin formed? Chromatin is formed when many nucleosomes come together to create thick fibers.
The process of DNA making copies of itself is known as what? DNA replication
What is the enzyme that 'unzips' the DNA molecule in order for replication to begin? DNA helicase
What does DNA polymerase do? Joins nucleotides together before proofreading the new strands during DNA replication.
What is the importance of protein? It is important in the growth, repair, and development of an organism.
What are the three differences between DNA and RNA? 1. RNA is single stranded 2. RNA has a uracil base instead of thymine 3. RNA 's 5-Carbon sugar is ribose instead of deoxyribose
What does mRNA do? Copies the information/instructions of DNA and carries the message to the ribosomes
What does rRNA do? Found in the ribosomes and helps with protein assembly
Which type of RNA helps to transfer amino acids to the polypeptide by decoding the instructions? tRNA
What is the type of gene that controls differentiation of cells or tissues in an organism? hox gene
What is something that can happen to an organism that has a mutation on a hox gene? The organs or body parts can develop completely wrong within the body.
What is the process where RNA molecules are produced by copying part of the DNA sequence? Transcription
What does RNA polymerase do? Binds to DNA and separates part of the strand in order for transcription to begin.
What is a part of the DNA sequence that DOES NOT code for proteins known as? intron
What is an exon? A part of the DNA sequence that codes for proteins
What is a three letter word that consists of three nucleotides in a row? codon
Why is a codon important? It specifies a specific amino acid
What is translation? The decoding of instructions that were carried on the mRNA
Where does translation take place? On the ribosomes
What is the term for when cells become specialized in structure and function? Differentiation
When a cell makes a mistake while copying its DNA, what does it cause? A mutation
What kind of mutation involves the loss of all, or part of, a chromosome? Deletion
What mutation involves parts of a chromosome breaking off and attaching to another chromosome? Translocation
A mutation that involves a change in one or a few nucleotides is known as what? Point mutation
A mutation that involves a change where a base is either 'inserted' or 'deleted' is known as what? Frameshift mutation
When extra parts of a chromosome is produced, this is known as why type of mutation? Duplication
When a part of a chromosome is reverses its direction, it is known as what? Inversion
During translation, before tRNA can read the instructions, what does it need to find? A start codon
How would a tRNA molecule know that it was time to stop translation? It comes to a stop codon
Where in the cell would mRNA bring the instructions that it copied, so that the instructions could be translated? Ribosomes
What types of bonds form between the amino acids of a polypeptide chain? Peptide bonds
If I have a DNA strand, ACCGTAGTCTAAGCAAGTC, what would its complimentary DNA strand look like? TGGCATCAGATTCGTTCAG
If I have a DNA strand, CGTCGAAGGCTAGCTAAG, what would its complimentary RNA strand look like? GCAGCUUCCGAUCGAUUC
Given the RNA strand GCAGCUUCCGAUCGAUUC, how many codons would you translate from this strand? Six (6)
Created by: ksobrie