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Topic 8: Water & Cli

Pages (159 - 163), Hydrologic Cycle & Ground Water

Compare and contrast weather and climate. Weather is short term and local, while Climate is annual and over the long term.
Describe the distribution of water over Earth in terms of salt vs. fresh water. 97% Salt water; 3% Fresh Water. 2% of the 3% Fresh is stored as ice at the Poles.
What percentage of Earth's surface is covered with water? About 72%. It fluctuates with seasons.
List the four things that can happen to water when is strikes Earth's surface having fallen as precipitation. Evaporate, infiltrate, run-off, or be stored (retained) as ice or snow for a time.
Explain how slope effects infiltration. Steep slope, less infiltration. Gentle slope, more infiltration.
Describe how degree of saturation effects infiltration. Greater degree of saturation, less infiltration due to less available space.
Define the water table: The top of the zone of saturation, below the zone of aeration, on top of the impermeable bed rock.
How does the local water table change over time? Rise with rain, and fall with drought. Rise "above" the surface results in run- off, or flooding.
Define porosity: The % percentage of empty space in a soil sample (typically 35% !).
List the three factors that effect porosity. Shape, sorting, and packing.
Discuss how shape effects porosity. Round shape = high porosity; square shape = low porosity.
Discuss how sorting effects porosity. Well sorted = high porosity; mixed samples = low porosity.
Discuss how packing effects porosity. Tightly packed = low porosity; loosely packed = higher porosity.
Does sediment size matter when it comes to porosity? NO! Size does not matter in this case regarding porosity.
Define Permeability: How easily and quickly water infiltrates.
Depict a high permeability soil sample. Large diameter sediment, well sorted, rounded.
Depict a low permeability soil sample. Small diameter sediment, mixed, regular shaped such as squares or flat like clay.
How might perma-frost effect permeability? Ice would clog the pores/tunnels downward which would diminish permeability.
Define Capillarity: The ability of water to climb up towards the surface against the pull of gravity.
Describe a soil sample with strong capillarity. Small, well sorted sediments, round in shape. This provides more "hand holds and foot holds" per inch as the polar water molecules uses ad and co-hesion to climb.
Discuss how vegetation aids in infiltration. Root structures create openings in the soil surface, and plants stop the water from flowing aiding gravity to pull it down into the sediment.
Depict ground characteristics with out vegetation covering. High run-off probability, and low infiltration rates.
List three impermeable ground coverings. Solid ice coat, a concrete parking lot, and buildings plus roads.
Describe conditions when flooding is likely. When precipitation exceeds infiltration. When the ground is saturated. If slope is too great to allow for infiltration.
Define stream discharge: Quantity of water flowing past a fixed spot in a given unit of time such as cubic meters per second.
Created by: whearn
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