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Topic 8: Water & Cli
Pages (159 - 163), Hydrologic Cycle & Ground Water
|Compare and contrast weather and climate.
|Weather is short term and local, while Climate is annual and over the long term.
|Describe the distribution of water over Earth in terms of salt vs. fresh water.
|97% Salt water; 3% Fresh Water. 2% of the 3% Fresh is stored as ice at the Poles.
|What percentage of Earth's surface is covered with water?
|About 72%. It fluctuates with seasons.
|List the four things that can happen to water when is strikes Earth's surface having fallen as precipitation.
|Evaporate, infiltrate, run-off, or be stored (retained) as ice or snow for a time.
|Explain how slope effects infiltration.
|Steep slope, less infiltration. Gentle slope, more infiltration.
|Describe how degree of saturation effects infiltration.
|Greater degree of saturation, less infiltration due to less available space.
|Define the water table:
|The top of the zone of saturation, below the zone of aeration, on top of the impermeable bed rock.
|How does the local water table change over time?
|Rise with rain, and fall with drought. Rise "above" the surface results in run- off, or flooding.
|The % percentage of empty space in a soil sample (typically 35% !).
|List the three factors that effect porosity.
|Shape, sorting, and packing.
|Discuss how shape effects porosity.
|Round shape = high porosity; square shape = low porosity.
|Discuss how sorting effects porosity.
|Well sorted = high porosity; mixed samples = low porosity.
|Discuss how packing effects porosity.
|Tightly packed = low porosity; loosely packed = higher porosity.
|Does sediment size matter when it comes to porosity?
|NO! Size does not matter in this case regarding porosity.
|How easily and quickly water infiltrates.
|Depict a high permeability soil sample.
|Large diameter sediment, well sorted, rounded.
|Depict a low permeability soil sample.
|Small diameter sediment, mixed, regular shaped such as squares or flat like clay.
|How might perma-frost effect permeability?
|Ice would clog the pores/tunnels downward which would diminish permeability.
|The ability of water to climb up towards the surface against the pull of gravity.
|Describe a soil sample with strong capillarity.
|Small, well sorted sediments, round in shape. This provides more "hand holds and foot holds" per inch as the polar water molecules uses ad and co-hesion to climb.
|Discuss how vegetation aids in infiltration.
|Root structures create openings in the soil surface, and plants stop the water from flowing aiding gravity to pull it down into the sediment.
|Depict ground characteristics with out vegetation covering.
|High run-off probability, and low infiltration rates.
|List three impermeable ground coverings.
|Solid ice coat, a concrete parking lot, and buildings plus roads.
|Describe conditions when flooding is likely.
|When precipitation exceeds infiltration. When the ground is saturated. If slope is too great to allow for infiltration.
|Define stream discharge:
|Quantity of water flowing past a fixed spot in a given unit of time such as cubic meters per second.