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Quarter 1-3 REVIEW

Study guide for quarters 1-3

what charge does a proton have? positive
what charge does an electron have? negative
what charge does a neutron have no charge (neutral)
when electrons are shared what kind of bond is that? covalent
when electrons are transferred (or lost/gain) what kind of bond is that? ionic
what does polar mean? a molecule has a slightly negative charge on one side of it and and a slightly positive charge on the other side of it
hydrogen bonding causes cohesion. What is cohesion? when water sticks to water
hydrogen bonding causes adhesion. what is adhesion? when water sticks to other substances like glass
hydrogen bonding causes capillarity? what is capillarity? both cohesion and adhesion working together
why is carbon the molecule in all life? it has 4 valence electrons so it can bond with other elements and it can form single, double and triple bonds making many different molecules necessary for life
name some carbohydrates? sugars (like glucose, sucrose, lactose) and starch
what are proteins made out of? amino acids
are lipids polar or nonpolar? nonpolar... (remember "like dissolves like" -water is polar and it cannot dissolve fats)
name some nucleic acids? RNA, DNA, ATP
how does ATP produce energy? when one of the phosphate groups of ATP breaks off it releases energy.
what do enzymes do for the body? they break down molecules. without them chemical reactions would occur so slowly that it could not support life
what is a cell? the smallest unit of life
why are cells so small? if they get too big and don't have enough surface area then materials cannot diffuse across the cell so the whole cell can't receive food
what is a eukaroyote? a cell with a nucleus AND membrane bound organelles (like mitochondria)
what is a prokaryote? a cell WITHOUT a nucleus (but still has DNA) and WITHOUT membrane bound organelles (like mitochondria)
which organelle in the cell makes ATP (energy)? mitochondria
where are proteins made? ribosomes
what 3 parts do all cells have? cytoplasm, cell membrane, DNA (not necessarily a nucleus though)
what kind of cells have cell walls? plants and some bacteria
where are chloroplasts found? in plants and some bacteria
which 2 organelles have their own DNA? chloroplasts and mitochondria
which organelle allows a plant/bacteria to do photosynthesis? chloroplast
when water flows from high to low this is called? osmosis
if a molecule is too large to move OUT of the cell what process will the cell do? exocyotsis
what does hypertonic mean? it means lots of solute and low water. since water flows from high to low a cell in a hypertonic environment will shrink.
what is turgor pressure? pressure that occurs in plant cells when water swells the cell and pushes against the cell wall
what is ecology? the study of organisms and their environment
what is a community? a group of different species in the same environment
what is an ecosystem? all the living and nonliving factors in an environment
what does niche mean? an organism's role it plays in the environment- what it eats, where it lives, how many babies it has...
what is a producer? an organisms that makes organic nutrients for itself and the environment
name some producers? any plant
where do plants and animals get nitrogen that their bodies need to grow? plants get it from the soil and animals get it from eating plants (it does not come from the air)
what is a biogeochemical cycle? ex: carbon, nitrogen, water cycle- it means elements that cycle through life and earth
what is exponential population growth? a population is growing quickly- birth rates are unrestricted
what is logistic growth? a population is growing quickly at first but then it levels off- birth rates are restricted due to carrying capacity.
what is carrying capacity? the max number a population can hit due to lack of food, water, shelter, and mates
why is genetic diversity good in populations? if organisms are not diverse then they are likely to all be affected if a devastating disease comes into an area
what is mimicry? when one organisms looks (copies) another organism to better survive
how do plants protect themselves from being eaten? thorns, tough leaves (hard to chew), poisonous chemicals (like poison ivy)
what is competition? when two species attempt to use the same resources
what is a keystone species? a species that is integral to the ecosystem- without it the ecosystem will not thrive and the diversity is greatly reduced
name some keystone species? wolves, sea stars, otters, and jaguars
what is mutualism? when a two species benefit in a relationship.
what is succession? when land changes gradually over time
what is a biome? a major ecosystem that occurs over wide areas of land
what is an adaptation? any feature that allows an organism to better survive in its environment
what process do bacteria use to make energy deep in the ocean away from sunlight? chemosynthesis
What is the aphotic (photo refers to light) zone of the ocean? area so deep sunlight cannot reach it
what is heredity? the passing of traits from parents to offspring
what does phenotype mean? the organisms features or physical appearance (looks)
what does homozygous mean? AA or aa
what does heterozygous mean? Aa
what does genotype mean? the organisms genes or alleles (letters)
what does DNA do? store and transmit genetic information
what is DNA made of? sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate and nitrogen bases
what is DNA base pairing rule? A- T and C-G
what is the monomer of DNA nucleotide
how is RNA different from DNA? RNA is single stranded, RNA has U instead of T, RNA has a different sugar (ribose)
what is transcription? when DNA makes a copy of itself in the form of mRNA
what is translation? when mRNA is read at the ribosome to make a protein
what is a mutation? an error in DNA
Created by: ruth.baker



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