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Chapter 12

Section 1: DNA Technology

TermDefinition
Sex Chromosome Contain genes that determine the sex of an individual
Autosome The remaining chromosomes that are not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual
Sex-Linked Trait A trait that is coded for by an allele on a sex chromosome
Linked Gene Pairs of genes that tend to be inherited together
Chromosome Map Diagram that shows the linear order of genes on a chromosome
Map Unit As a frequency of crossing-over 1 percent
Germ-Cell Mutation Mutation in an organisms gametes
Somatic-Cell Mutation Mutations in an organism's body cells and can therefor affect the organism
Lethal Mutation Cause death, often before birth
Deletion Loss of a piece of chromosome due to breakage
Inversion A chromosome segment breaks off, flips around backward, and reattaches
Translocation A piece of one chromosome breaks off and reattaches to a nonhomologous chromosome
Nondisjunction A chromosome fails to separate from it homologous during meiosis
Point Mutation The substitution, addition, or removal of a single nucleotide, the change often occurs within a single gene or other segment of DNA on a chromosome
Substitution One nucleotide replaces another
Frameshift Mutation Making all amino acids downstream change
Insertion Mutation One or more nucleotides are added to a gene, can result in a frameshift mutation
Created by: McLeanE18